Essay On Mynah

Common myna Facts

Common myna Facts
Common myna is a species of bird that belongs to the starling family. It originates from Central, South and Southeast Asia. Common myna was deliberately introduced to New Zealand and Australia to eradicate several species of pest insects in the 19th century. Unfortunately, this bird soon adapted to the new environment and became one of the most notorious pest in Australia. Common myna inhabits shrubby woodlands, open fields, floodplains and grasslands in the wild. It is very common in urban areas where it inhabits parks, gardens and areas filled with garbage. Common myna is widespread and numerous in the wild (nothing currently threatens its survival).
Common myna can reach 9.1 inches in length and 3.8 to 4.9 ounces of weight.
Common myna has dark brown body, white-tipped tail and white patch on the bottom side of the wings (visible during the flight). Head, throat and upper part of the breasts are covered with black feathers. Eyes are encircled with bare yellow skin.
Common myna has stocky body, straight, stout bill, large feet and short tail.
Common myna uses its strong legs to walk (rather than to hop) on the ground.
Common myna is an omnivore (it eats plants and meat). Its diet is based on the snails, eggs, immature birds, frogs, insects, fruit and seed.
Common myna often follows the ploughs due to insects that can be collected from the furrowed soil. It occasionally eliminates ticks from the back of cattle.
Common myna often feeds in the groups and produces great damage in the orchards. It pierces the skin of various types of soft fruit and decreases their market value.
Common myna roosts in large flocks that occasionally consist of few thousand birds.
Common myna produces various songs that consist of whistling, squeaking and gurgling sounds. Captive birds are able to mimic humans' speech.
Mating season of common mynas takes place from April to July in India. Common mynas are monogamous birds (they mate for a lifetime).
Common mynas are very aggressive during the breeding season. Pairs of birds often violently fight with each other. Winners get opportunity to build nest on the preferred site.
Common mynas build nest in the cavities of trees, buildings or cliffs. Both parents collect twigs, leaves and grasses for the construction of cup-shaped nest.
Female lays 4 to 5 eggs that hatch after 13 to 18 days. Male provides food for the female during the incubation.
Both parents collect food for their offspring. Young birds are ready to leave the nest 22 to 27 days after hatching. They begin independent life three weeks later. Common myna reaches sexual maturity at the age of one year.
Common myna can survive around 4 years (rarely up to 12 years) in the wild.

This article is about the bird. For other uses, see Myna (disambiguation).

"Myna bird" redirects here. For the bird commonly known as the 'myna bird' in aviculture, see Common hill myna.

Not to be confused with the Australian or South American birds known as "miners".

A common Myna resting on some coconuts, Thanlyin, Myanmar
Common mynah on a tree. Kollam, Kerala, India.
Two myna sitting together

The myna (also known as mynah) is a bird of the starlingfamily (Sturnidae). This is a group of passerine birds which are native to southern Asia, especially India. Several species have been introduced to areas like North America, Australia, South Africa, Fiji and New Zealand, especially the common myna which is often regarded as an invasive species. It is often known as "Selarang" in Singapore, due to their high population there.

Mynas are not a natural group; instead, the term myna is used for any starling in the Indian subcontinent, regardless of their relationships. This range was colonized twice during the evolution of starlings, first by rather ancestral starlings related to the coleto and Aplonis lineages, and millions of years later by birds related to the common starling and wattled starling's ancestors. These two groups of mynas can be distinguished in the more terrestrial adaptions of the latter, which usually also have less glossy plumage except on the heads and longer tails. The Bali myna which is nearly extinct in the wild is highly distinctive.

Some mynas are considered talking birds, for their ability to reproduce sounds, including human speech, when in captivity.

"Myna" is derived from the Hindi language mainā which itself is derived from Sanskrit madanā.[2][3]


Mynas are medium-sized passerines with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit.

Plumage is typically dark, often brown, although some species have yellow head ornaments. Most species nest in holes.

Some species have become well known for their imitative skills; the common hill myna is one of these.


The following are species of mynas. The coleto and the two Saroglossa starlings are included because of their position in the taxonomic list.

Jungle and hill mynas[edit]

  • Yellow-faced myna, Mino dumontii
  • Golden myna, Mino anais
  • Long-tailed myna, Mino kreffti
  • Sulawesi myna, Basilornis celebensis
  • Helmeted myna, Basilornis galeatus
  • Long-crested myna, Basilornis corythaix
  • Apo myna, Basilornis miranda
  • White-necked myna, Streptocitta albicollis
  • Bare-eyed myna, Streptocitta albertinae
  • Fiery-browed myna, Enodes erythrophris
  • Finch-billed myna, Scissirostrum dubium
  • Golden-crested myna, Ampeliceps coronatus
  • Common hill myna, Gracula religiosa
  • Southern hill myna, Gracula indica
  • Enggano hill myna, Gracula enganensis
  • Nias hill myna, Gracula robusta
  • Sri Lanka hill myna, Gracula ptilogenys

"True" mynas[edit]

  • Great myna, Acridotheres grandis
  • Crested myna, Acridotheres cristatellus
  • White-vented myna, Acridotheres javanicus
  • Pale-bellied myna, Acridotheres cinereus
  • Jungle myna, Acridotheres fuscus
  • Collared myna, Acridotheres albocinctus
  • Bank myna, Acridotheres ginginianus
  • Common myna, Acridotheres tristis
  • Bali myna, Leucopsar rothschildi

The following species are often included in the Acridotheres mynas:



  • Zuccon, Dario; Cibois, Alice; Pasquet, Eric; Ericson, Per G. P. (2006). "Nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data reveal the major lineages of starlings, mynas and related taxa". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 41 (2): 333–344. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.007. PMID 16806992. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sturnidae.
  1. ^myna. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
  2. ^New Oxford American Dictionary


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