Bibliography Of Islamic History

This article by Arthur Jeffrey is one of the best overviews of early work on the Historical Muhammad and the origins of Islam. The following bibliography is meant to catalog “what happened next” (after 1970) in scholarly work on the subject, published in English.

Listed chronologically. Use Ctrl+F to search for authors or titles.

  • Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World by Patricia Crone and Michael Cook, 1977.
  • Quranic Studies: Sources and Methods of Scriptural Interpretation by John Wansbrough, 1977.
  • The Sectarian Milieu: Content And Composition of Islamic Salvation History by John Wansbrough, 1978.
  • Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam by Patricia Crone, 1987.
  • Textual Sources for the Study of Islam by Andrew Rippin, 1990.
  • Islamic History by R. Stephen Humphreys, 1991.
  • The Origins of the Koran by Ibn Warraq, 1998.
  • The Quest of the Historical Muhammed by Ibn Warraq, 2000.
  • The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800 by Jonathan Berkey, 2002.
  • Islamic Historiography by Chase Robinson, 2002.
  • Crossroads to Islam: The Origins of the Arab Religion and the Arab State by Yehuda Nevo & Judith Koren, 2003.
  • Early Muslim Dogma: A Source-Critical Study by Michael Cook, 2003.
  • Studies in the Origins of Early Islamic Culture and Tradition by Michael Cook, 2004.
  • The Oral and the Written in Early Islam by Gregor Schoeler, 2006.
  • The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran by Christoph Luxenberg, 2007.
  • Introduction to the Qur’an: History, Interpretation and Approaches by Abdullah Saeed, 2008.

Bibliography


Islam and Ecology Bibliography


Richard Foltz
University of Florida


 View a PDF version of this bibliography.

View an annotated PDF version of this bibliography.


Abdul-Matin, Ibrahim. Green Deen: What Islam Teaches About Protecting the Planet. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2010.


Abu-Sway, Mustafa. “Toward an Islamic Jurisprudence of the Environment” (Fiqh al-Bi’ah f’il-Islam). Lecture presented at Belfast mosque, February 1998. Updated 20 June 1999 http://homepages.iol.ie/~afifi/Articles/environment.htm (cited 14 August 2001).

________. Islam: The Environment and Health. Qualbert, SA: Islamic Medical Association of South Africa, 1999.


Ackerman, Denise, and Tahira Joyner. “Earth-Healing in South Africa: Challenges to Church and Mosque.” In Women Healing Earth: Third World Women on Ecology, Feminism, and Religion, ed. Rosemary Radford Ruether, 121–34. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1996.


Aftab, Tahera. "Text and Practice: Women and Nature in Islam." In Custodians of the Earth? Women, Spirituality and the Environment. Alaine Low and Soraya Tremayne, eds. Oxford, UK: Berghahn Books, 2001.


Agwan, A. R. ed. Islam and the Environment. New Delhi: Institute of Objective Studies, 1997.

Ahmad, Ali. A Cosmopolitan Orientation of International Environmental Law: An Islamic Law Genre. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2001.

 

 _______. “Islamic Water Law as an Antidote for Maintaining Water Quality.” University of Denver Water Law Review 2, no. 2 (Spring 1999): 170–88.

 

Ahmad, Akhtaruddin. Islam and the Environmental Crisis. London: Ta-Ha Publishers, 1998.

 

Ajmal, Mohammed. “Islam and Ecological Problems.” In Quest for New Science, eds. Rais

Ahmed and S. Naseem Ahmed, 215–20. Aligarh: Centre for Studies on Science, 1984.

 

Al-Amin, Hi’at Muhammad. Al-fiqhah al-b’at. Beirut: Mu’assasat al-wa ‘i al-islami, 1420 (2000).

 

Alhilaly, Tajuddin H. “Islam and Ecology,” trans. Keysar Trad, 1993. updated n.d. http://www.speednet.com.au/~keysar/ecology.htm (cited 14 August 2001).

 

Al-Jayyousi, Odeh Rashed. Islam and Sustainable Development: New Worldviews. Surrey, England: Gower Publishing, 2012.

 

Al-Safa, Ikhwan. The Animals’ Lawsuit Against Humanity: An Illustrated 10th Century Iraqi Ecological Fable. Translated by Anson Laytner. Louisville, KY: Fons Vitae, 2005.

 

Ammar, Nawal H. “Islam and Deep Ecology.” In Deep Ecology and World Religions: New Essays on Sacred Ground, eds. David Landis Barnhill and Roger S. Gottlieb, 193–211. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 2001.

 

_______. “An Islamic Response to the Manifest Ecological Crisis: Issues of Justice.” In Visions of a New Earth: Religious Perspectives on Population, Consumption, and Ecology, eds. Harold Coward and Daniel C. Maguire, 131– 46. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 2000.

 

_______. “Islam and the Environment: A Legalistic and Textual View.” In Population, Consumption, and the Environment: Religious and Secular Responses, eds. Harold Coward and Daniel C. Maguire, 67. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1995.

 

Asmal, Abdul Cader, and Mohammed Asmal. “As Islamic Perspective.” In Consumption, Population, and Sustainability: Perspectives from Science and Religion, eds. Audrey Chapman, Rodney Peterson, and Barbara Smith-Moran, 157–65. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2000.

 

Ayduz, Davud. “The Approach to the Environment Question of the Qur’an and its Contemporary Commentary, the Risale-i Nur.” Paper presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Bediuzzaman Said Nursi: A Contemporary Approach Toward Understanding the Qur’an: The Example of Risale-i Nur, Istanbul, Turkey, 20–22 September 1998.

 

Ba Kader, Abou Bakr Ahmed. Environmental Protection in Islam. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1995.

 

Ba Kader, Abou Bakr Ahmed, Abdul Latif Tawfik El Shirazy Al Sabagh, Mohamed Al Sayyed Al Glenid, and Mawil Y. Izzi Deen. Islamic Principles for the Conservation of the Natural Environment. 2d ed. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1983.

 

Ba Ubaid, Ali Yeslam. "Environment, Ethics, and Design: An Inquiry into the Ethical Underpinnings for a Contemporary Muslim Environmentalism and its Environmental Design Implications." Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1999.

 

Bagader, Abubakr Ahmed, Abdullatif Tawfik El-Chirazi El-Sabbagh, Mohamad As-Sayyid Al-Glayand, Mawil Yousuf Izzi-Deen Samarrai, and Othman Abd-ar-Rahman Llewellyn. “Environmental Protection in Islam.” International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 20. 2nd Revised Edition. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN, 1994. http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/eplp_020reven.pdf

 

Bagir, Zainal Abidin, and Najiyah Martiam. “Islam” in Routledge Handbook of Religion and Ecology. Edited by Willis Jenkins, Mary Evelyn Tucker, and John Grim, 79-87. London and New York: Routledge, 2017.


Ban, E.G. The Constant Feud: Forest vs. Desert. New York, NY: Gefen, 1999.

 

Barnhill, David, and Roger Gottlieb, eds. Deep Ecology and World Religions: New Essays on Sacred Ground. Albany, NY: SUNY, 2001.

 

Bivins, Mary W. "Women, Ecology, and Islam in the Making of Modern Hausa Cultural History." Ph.D. diss., Michigan State University, 1994.

 

Bousquet, G. “Des animaux et de leur traitement selon le Judaisme, le Christianisme et l’Islam.” Studia Islamica 9 (1958): 31–48.

 

Bryer, Jenny Banks. "Science and the Environment Symposium II: The Black Sea in Crisis." Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 10(March 1999): 69-76.

 

Callicott, J. Baird. “The Historical Roots of Western European Environmental Attitudes and Values: Islam.” In Earth’s Insights: A Multicultural Survey of Ecological Ethics from the Mediterranean Basin to the Australian Outback, 30–36. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1994.

 

Canan, Ibrahim. Environmental Ethics in the Light of the Hadiths (In Turkish). Istanbul: New Asia Press, 1995.

 

_______. “Environment in Islam.” Yeni Turkiye 5 (July-August 1995): 27–38.

 

Canatan, Kadir. “The Paradigmatic Background to the Ecological Crisis and Said Nursi’s Cosmological Teachings.” Paper presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Bediuzzaman Said Nursi: A Contemporary Approach Toward Understanding the Qur’an: The Example of Risale-i Nur, Istanbul, Turkey, 20–22 September 1998.

 

Chee Yoke Ling. Humanity Must Protect Nature: What Islam, Taoism, Hinduism, and Christianity Have to Say about Environmental Protection. Penang, Malaysia: Third World Science Movement, Consumers Association of Penang, n.d.

 

Chittick, William. “God Surrounds All Things: An Islamic Perspective on the Environment.” The World and I 1, no. 6 (June 1986): 671–78.

 

Damad, Mostafa Mohaghegh. “A Discourse on Nature and Environment from an Islamic Perspective.” Tehran: Department of the Environment, 2001. updated n.d. http://www.ir-doe.org/hamaiesh/pub2.htm (cited 24 August 2001).

 

Department of Environmental Protection. Majmu ‘e-ye maqalat-e avalin hamayesh-e eslam va mohit-e zist. Papers from the first conference on Islam and the Environment. Tehran: Department of Environmental Protection, 1378 (1999).

 

Dutton, Yasin. “Islam and the Environment: A Framework for Inquiry.” Faiths and the Environment: Conference Papers, 46–70. Faith in Dialogue, no. 1. London: Centre for Inter-Faith Dialogue, 1996.

 

Dwivedi, O. P., ed. World Religions and the Environment. New Delhi: Gilanjal Publishing House, 1989.

 

El-Malik, Walied M. H. Minerals Investment Under Shari’a Law. Kluwer Law International, 1993.

 

Erdur, Oguz. “Reappropriating the ‘Green’: Islamist Environmentalism.” New Perspectives on Turkey 17 (fall 1997): 151–66.

 

Faruqui, Naser, Asit Biswas, and Murad Bino, eds. Water Management in Islam. Tokyo, Japan: United Nations University Press, 2001.

 

Feitelson, Eran and Marwan Haddad, eds. Management of Shared Groundwater Resources: The Israli-Palestinian Case with an International Perspective. New York: Springer Science and Business Media, 2012.

 

Findly, E. “Jahangir’s Vow of Non-Violence.” Journal of American Oriental Society 107, no. 2 (1987): 245–56.

 

Foltz, Richard. “Ecology in Islam.” In Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religion. Edited by Anne L. C. Runehov and Lluiz Oviedo, 661-677. The Netherlands: Springer, 2013.

 

________. Animals in Islamic Traditions and Muslim Cultures. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications, 2006.

 

________. ed. Environmentalism in the Muslim World. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2005.

 

________. Worldviews, Religion, and the Environment. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2003.

 

_______. “Is There an Islamic Environmentalism?” Environmental Ethics 22, no. 4 (2000): 63–72.

 

Foltz, Richard C., Azizan Baharuddin, and Frederick M. Denny, eds. Islam and Ecology: A Bestowed Trust. Cambridge, Mass.: Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard Divinity School, 2003; Distributed by Harvard University Press.

 

Forward, Martin, and Mohamed Alam, “Islam.” In Attitudes to Nature, eds. Jean Holm and John Bowker, 79–100. London: Pinter, 1994.

 

GŸrsel, D. ‚evresizsiniz (You Are Environmentless). Istanbul: Insan Yayincilik, 1989 (In Turkish).

 

Haleem, Harfiya Abdel, ed. Islam and the Environment. London: Ta-Ha Publishers, 1998.

 

Hamed, Safei El-Deen. “Seeing the Environment Through Islamic Eyes: Application of Shariah to Natural Resources Planning and Management.” Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 6, no. 2 (1993): 145–64.

 

Haq, S. Nomanul. “Islam.” In A Companion to Environmental Philosophy, ed. Dale Jamieson, 111–29. London: Blackwell, 2001.

 

Hashem, Mazen. "Contemporary Islamic Activism: The Shades of Praxis." Sociology of Religion 67.1(Spring 2006): 23-41.

 

Helminski, Camille, ed. The Book of Nature: An Anthology of Spiritual Perspectives on Nature. Chicago, IL: Independent Publishers Group, 2006.

 

Helmy, N. Islam and Environment 2–Animal Life. Kuwait: Environment Protection Council, 1989.

 

Hope, Marjorie, and James Young. "Islam and Ecology." Cross Currents 44.2(Summer 1994): 180-193.

 

Hrynkow, Christopher. “Ecology and Islam.” In Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God, Volume 1. Edited by Coeli Fitzpatrick and Adam Hani Walker, 157-161. Santa Barbara, CA and Oxford: ABC-CLIO, 2014.

 

Husaini, S. Waqar Ahmad. Islamic Environmental Systems Engineering. London: Macmillan, 1980.

 

I-Abbas, Fakhar. Animal’s Rights in Islam: Islam and Animal Rights. Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag, 2009


Ibrahim, F. Ecological Imbalances in the Republic of Sudan. Bayreuth: Druckhaus Bayreuth Verlagsgesellschaft, 1984.

 

Idris, Jaafar Sheikh. “Is Man the Vicegerent of God?” Journal of Islamic Studies 1 (1990): 99–110.

 

Ikhwan al-Safa (The Brethren of Purity). The Case of the Animals versus Man Before the King of the Jinn. Translated by Lenn Evan Goodman. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1978.

 

International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)-Pakistan. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy. Karachi: IUCN, 1992.

 

Izz al-Din, Muil Yusuf. The Environmental Dimensions of Islam. Cambridge: Lutterworth, 2000.

 

________. “Islam and the Environment: Theory and Practice.” Journal of Beliefs and Values 18, no. 1. (1997): 47–58.

 

________. “Islamic Environmental Ethic, Law, and Society.” In Ethics of Environment and Development: Global Challenge and International Response, eds. J. Ronald Engel and Joan Gibb Engel, 189–98. Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press, 1990.

 

Izzi Dien, Mawil. "Islamic Concepts of Creation and Environmental Sustainability." In Neil Spurway, ed. Creation and Abrahamic Faiths. Cambridge Social Publishing: Cambridge, 2008, 119-135.

 

Jazayery, Hashem Najy. Hemayat az heyvanat dar eslam (The Importance of Animals in Islam). Qom: Dar al-saqalin, 1379 (2000).

 

Johnson-Davies, D. The Island of Animals, Adapted from an Arabic Fable. Austin, Tex.: University of Texas Press, 1994.


Johnston, David. Earth, Empire, and Sacred Text: Muslims and Christians as Trustees of Creation. Oakville, CT: Equinox Publishing, 2010.

 

________. "Toward Muslims and Christians as Joint Caretakers of Creation in a Postmodern World." Ph.D. diss., Fuller Theological Seminary, 2001.

 

Joma, Hesam Addin Abdul Salam. “The Earth as a mosque: Integration of the traditional Islamic environmental planning ethic with agricultural and water development policies in Saudi Arabia.” Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1991.

Kaplan, Jeffrey. “Review of Mawil Izzi Dien’s The Environmental Dimensions of Islam.” Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion 5, no. 1 (2001): 110–12.

 

Khalid, Fazlun. Qur’an: Creation and Conservation. Birmingham, United Kingdom: IFEES, 1999.

 

Khalid, Fazlun, and Joanne O’Brien, eds. Islam and Ecology. New York: Cassell, 1992.

 

Kilic, Sadik. “The Message of the Risale-i Nur in the Ecological Context.” Paper presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Bediuzzaman Said Nursi: A Contemporary Approach Toward Understanding the Qur’an: The Example of Risale-i Nur, Istanbul, Turkey, 20–22 September 1998.

 

Kula, Erhun. “Islam and Environmental Conservation.” Environmental Conservation 28, no. 1 (2001): 2–9.

 

Llewelyn, Othman. “Desert Reclamation and Conservation in Islamic Law.” The Muslim Scientist 11, no. 9 (1982): 9–29.

 

Lovejoy, Paul. Ecology and Ethnography of Muslim Trade in West Africa. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2005.

 

Manzoor, S. Parviz. “Environment and Values: An Islamic Perspective.” In Touch of Midas Scientific Values and the Environment in Islam and the West, ed. Ziauddin Sardar, 150–70. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984.


Masri, Al-Hafiz. Animal Welfare in Islam. Markfield: Islamic Foundation, 2007.


________. Islamic Concern for Animals. Petersfield, Hants, England: The Athene Trust, 1987.

 

_______. “Animal Experimentation: The Muslim Viewpoint.” In Animal Sacrifices: Religious Perspectives on the Use of Animals in Science, ed. Tom Regan, 171–98. Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 1986.

McKay, Jeanne E., Fachruddin M. Mangunjaya, Yoan Dinata, Stuart R. Harrop, and Fazlun Khalid. “Practise What You Preach: A Faith-based Approach to Conservation in Indonesia.” Oryx FirstView (2013): 1-7.

 

Meier, Fritz. “The Problems of Nature in the Esoteric Monism of Islam,” trans. R. Mannheim. In Spirit and Nature: Papers from the Eranos Yearbooks, ed. Joseph Campbell, 149–203. New York: Pantheon, 1954.

Mikhail, Alan. The Animal in Ottoman Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

 

________. Under Osman’s Tree: The Ottoman Empire, Egypt, and Environmental History. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 2017.

 

Musselman, Lytton John. Figs, Dates, Laurel, and Myrrh: Plants of the Bible and the Quran. Portland, OR: Timber Press, 2007.

 

Narayan, Rajdeva, ed. Ecology and Religion: Ecological Concepts in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Islam, Christianity, and Sikhism. Muzaffarpur: Institute for Socio-Legal Studies, 2003.

 

Nasif, Abdullah Omar. “The Muslim Declaration of Nature.” Environmental Policy and Law 17, no. 1 (1987): 47.

 

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Man and Nature: The Spiritual Crisis in Modern Man. Rev. ed. Chicago, Ill.: Kazi Publishers, 1997, c1967.

 

________. Religion and the Order of Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

 

________. “Islam and the Environmental Crisis.” In Spirit and Nature, eds. Steven C. Rockefeller and John C. Elder, 83–108. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.

 

________. “The Ecological Problem in Light of Sufism: The Conquest of Nature and the Teachings of Eastern Science.” In Sufi Essays. 2d ed., ed. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, 152–63. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1991.

 

________. “Islam and the Environmental Crisis.” The Islamic Quarterly 34, no. 4 (1991): 217–34.

 

________. “Islam and the Environmental Crisis.” Journal of Islamic Science 6, no. 2 (1990): 217–34.

 

Othman, Fadil, and Johan Sohaili. “Man’s Duty to Protect the Environment.” The New Straits Times, 10 December 1998, 2.

 

Ozdemir, Ibrahim. “Bediuzzaman Said Nursi’s Approach to the Environment.” Paper presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Bediuzzaman Said Nursi: A Contemporary Approach Toward Understanding the Qur’an: The Example of Risale-i Nur, Istanbul, Turkey, 20–22 September 1998.

 

________. The Ethical Dimension of Human Attitude Toward Nature. Ankara: Ministry of Environment, 1997.

 

________. Cevre ve Din (Environment and Religion). Ankara, Turkey: Ministry of Environment, 1997.

 

Palmer, Martin, and Victoria Finlay, eds. Faith in Conservation: New Approaches to Religions and the Environment. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications, 2003.

 

Peirone, Federico. “Islam and Ecology in the Mediterranean Muslim Kulturkreise.” Hamdard Islamicus 5, no. 2 (1982): 3–31.

 

Pusch, Barbara. "The Greening of Islamic Politics: A Godsend for the Environment?" In Environmentalism in Turkey: Between Democracy and Development. Fikret Adaman and Murat Arsel, eds. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2005.

 

________. “The Ecology Debate Among Muslim Intellectuals in Turkey.” Les Annales de l’Autre Islam 6 (1999): 195–209.

Quadir, Tarik M. Traditional Islamic Environmentalism: The Vision of Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2013.

 

Rafiq, M., and Mohammad Ajmal. “Islam and the Present Ecological Crisis.” In World Religions and the Environment, ed. O. P. Dwivedi, 119–37. New Delhi: Gilanjal Publishing House, 1989.

 

Rahman, M. K. “Environmental Awareness in Islam.” MAAS Journal of Islamic Science 2, no. 1 (1986): 99–106.

 

Raskhy, Fruzan. “Ertebat-e ensan va tabi’at az negah-e eslam va Ayin-e Da’o” (The Relationship between Man and Nature in Islam and Daoism). Haft Asman 1, no. 2 (1387/1999): 87–117.

 

Sajoo, Amyn. Muslim Ethics: Emerging Vistas. London, UK: Institute for Small Studies, 2004.

 

Sardar, Ziauddin, ed. An Early Crescent: The Future of Knowledge and the Environment in Islam. London: Mansell, 1989.

 

________. “Toward an Islamic Theory of the Environment.” In Islamic Futures: A Shape of Ideas to Come, ed. Ziauddin Sardar, 224–37. London: Mansell, 1985.

 

________. Touch of Midas: Scientific Values and the Environment in Islam and the West. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984.

 

Schimmel, Annemarie. Islam and the Wonders of Creation: The Animal Kingdom. London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2003.

 

Selin, Helaine, ed. Nature Across Cultures: Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-Western Cultures. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.

 

Shafaat, Ahmad. "Ecological Implications of an Islamic View of God, Universe, and Human Beings." Ecumenism 134(1999): 18-21.

 

Shankland, David. Islam and Society in Turkey. Huntingdon: Eothen Press, 1999.

 

Shroder, John and Sher Jan Ahmadzai. “Water in Islam.” In Transboundary Water Resources in Afghanistan. Cambridge, MA & The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2016, 361-375.

 

Stewart, Philip J. “Islamic Law as a Factor in Grazing Management: The Pilgrimage Sacrifice.”

In Proceedings of the First International Rangeland Congress, Denver, Colorado, August 14–18, 1978, ed. D. N. Hyder, 119–20. Denver, Colo.: Society for Range Management, 1978.

 

Swearington, Will D., and Abdellatif Bencherifa, eds. The North African Environment at Risk. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1996.

Taneja, Anand Vivek. Jinnealogy: Time, Islam, and Ecological Thought in the Medieval Ruins of Delhi. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2017.

 

Timm, Roger E. “The Ecological Fallout of Islamic Creation Theology.” In Worldviews and Ecology, eds. Mary Evelyn Tucker and John A. Grim, 83–95. Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press, 1993.

 

Tlili, Sarra. Animals in the Qur’an. New York & Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.


Tolu-e-Islam Movement. “Man and His Environment. In Islam: A Challenge.” Lahore: Tolu-e-Islam, 2000. Updated 15 August 2001 http://www.toluislam.com/pub_online/islam_a_challenge/chapter17.htm (cited 14 August 2001).

 

Uslu, I. The Environmental Problems: From Transformation in the Conception of Cosmos to the Ecological Catastrophe (In Turkish). Istanbul: Insan Press, 1995.

 

Wellman, David J. Sustainable Diplomacy: Ecology, Religion, and Ethics in Muslim-Christian Relations. New York, NY: Palgrave, 2004.

 

Wersal, Lisa. “Islam and Environmental Ethics: Tradition Responds to Contemporary Challenges.” Zygon 30, no. 3 (1995): 451–59.

 

Wescoat, James L., Jr. “Muslim Contributions to Geography and Environmental Ethics: The Challenges of Comparison and Pluralism.” In Philosophy and Geography I: Space, Place, and Environmental Ethics, eds. Andrew Light and Jonathan M. Smith, 91–116. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

 

_______. “The ‘Right of Thirst’ for Animals in Islamic Law: A Comparative Approach.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 13, no. 6 (1995): 637–54.

 

_______. “From the Gardens of the Qur’an to the Gardens of Lahore,” Landscape Research 20 (1995): 19–29. 

 

Wilkinson, John C. “Muslim Land and Water Law.” Journal of Islamic Studies 1 (1990): 54–72.

 

Zaidi, Iqtidar H. “On the Ethics of Man’s Interaction with the Environment: An Islamic Approach.” Environmental Ethics 3, no. 1 (spring 1981): 35–47.

 

 

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