Biopsychosocial Model Of Health Essays

The Biopsychosocial Model Essay

INTRODUCTION
“Don’t treat the disease, treat the patient” [9]. The concept of health has seemed to become complex in definition over the centuries as science improves. “Health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.”-World Health Definition of Health (1948) [9]
In order to understand health, different models or frameworks for thinking have been developed which have been useful. The Biomedical model which evolved since the 19th century from Galen’s (Greek physician 200AD) concept of pathogen, focused on removing the disease/disability and not on prevention or general well-being [9]. The Biopsychosocial model however, doesn’t merely focus on the physical state of the body but recognizes the human being as a complex organism and health as an interaction between the physical/body/biological, mind/psychological and environment/sociological. This model was introduced by George Engel (1977).
Reflection is the process of evaluating ideas/thoughts from experiences and making active decisions. It is a necessary tool in experiential learning.[4] Several models have been developed to facilitate this process but this essay is going to be retrospective and based on John’s model of structured reflection(1992) [3,4]. The general reflective questions will be WHAT? SO WHAT? And THEN WHAT? [4]


To suggest an option for a new theory of healthcare does not necessarily mean to invalidate all previous or existing ones, since their relationship need not to be exclusivist, but may be inclusivist instead.[8] Einstein’s theory for example, progressed beyond Newton’s physics, but the latter still remains relevant till today. Though the Biomedical and Biopsychosocial models each have different approaches, both still have significant roles and function in healthcare.
The Biomedical model which focuses on the control and mastery of diseases has undeniably been beneficial in the study of several diseases but also has its liabilities. It is reductionist because it reduces illness to low-level processes such as chemical imbalances, pathogens, genetic predispositions and disorders. According to this model, individuals are not responsible for illnesses caused by factors beyond their control and treatment should include vaccination, surgery and the like which all aim to remove the cause of the illness. In this model of practice, an individual can either be healthy or ill because there is no continuum. That a psychological disorder can lead to an illness but there is no in-between. The biomedical view thus identifies treatment of various parts with the ultimate goal of a cure. If success in this model is defined as a cure, death is defined as ultimate failure, to be avoided at all cost. Patients whose diseases cannot be “cured” are deemed as “incurable”. [7]
The Biopsychosocial (BPS) model greatly differs because while the biomedical answers the main question “why do people get sick?” the BPS also...

Loading: Checking Spelling

0%

Read more

Models and perspectives of care /biopsychosocial

3369 words - 13 pages Within this assignment the intention is to discuss the biological, psychological and social models and perspectives of care. This will be achieved through examining the influences of each model and their effects upon the practice of mental health care. Some historical information will be provided to give explanation of the background into the evolution of social and moral perspectives that have shaped mental health care practice throughout the...

Depression Case Study

1879 words - 8 pages This paper introduces a 35-year-old female who is exhibiting signs of sadness, lack of interest in daily activities and suicidal tendencies. She has no interest in hobbies, which have been very important to her in the past. Her lack of ambition and her suicidal tendencies are causing great concern for her family members. She is also exhibiting signs of hypersomnia, which will put her in dangerous situations if left untreated. The family has...

Mental Health Nursing

1234 words - 5 pages Nursing practice has revolutionized itself throughout the years. Today we realize the causes of current illnesses as complex and multifaceted (source). In past models, for instance the medical model, the approach was straightforward and neglected the patients active involvement in their care; the patient was viewed as the passive recipient and the doctor, an active agent that “fixed” their patients. ( source). New developed models since then,...

Analysis of The Movie "Patch Adams" using Communication Models.

1963 words - 8 pages The analysis of the movie Patch Adams: Is humor the best medicine?Patch Adams is a movie that is based on a true story. It is about a man who has...

Personality Disorders

5287 words - 21 pages Personality Disorders Personality disorders indicate the presence of chronic rigid and maladjusted personality traits, through which the person's interpersonal or professional functioning is negatively affected, or which lead to personal unhappiness and problems (Louw, 1990). Discuss this statement from a biopsychosocial frame of reference and refer to one personality disorder in any...

Psychosocial Factors Role In Adjustment Of Chronic Pain

1773 words - 7 pages Health Psychology PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 2 Running Head: PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS ROLE IN ADJUSTMENT OF CHRONIC PAINPsychosocial Factors Role In Adjustment Of Chronic PainPsychosocial Factors Role In Adjustment Of Chronic PainIntroductionPain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience, to be chronic; it becomes etiological factor and maintainer of the table, with cyclic behavior and adaptive...

Effectiveness of Music Therapy

1873 words - 7 pages Music is composed of sounds intertwined with melody and rhythm that can have powerful effects on a person. It can help people focus on tasks or calm the mind. Research has shown that music has beneficial effects on the mind, body, and health of a person. A journal article by Rastogi, Solanki, and Zafar (2013) refers, on the contrary, to: ‘Controlled use of music and its influence on the human being in physiological, psychological, and emotional...

What are the Most Effective Heart Disease Prevention, Onset and Intervention Methods

3543 words - 14 pages As opposed to the 19th century where the prevalence of preventable infectious disease was the leading cause of mortality, we face a new challenge today: decreasing the occurrence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and strokes. Overwhelmingly so, cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in the United States. This can be attributed to the state of poor psychological health and poor behavioral choices promoted...

Causes and Symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder

1362 words - 5 pages Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is one of the ten personality disorders mentioned in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Personality disorders are long-lasting patterns of maladaptive behavior that deviate from cultural norms. These maladaptive behaviors have an impact on a person’s cognition, affect, interpersonal functioning and impulse control. In the DSM personality disorders are divided into three clusters A, B and C and ASPD...

Mike Tyson: A Psychosocial and Biological Analysis

2190 words - 9 pages Health Psychology In the past few decades, clinical treatment has moved on from biomedical approach to the biopsychosocial approach. Scientists now believe that health of an individual is not merely due to physiological conditions but may also depend on psychological and socio-cultural perspectives(Engel, 1977). The term health psychology was developed by the American Psychological Association to describe health and wellness issues that arise...

Motivation Profiles Paper

1179 words - 5 pages Ella's motivationBiological theory of motivation refers to the internal reasons of motivation. It could be explained with instincts, drives and arousals theories.Ella's motivation can be explained by "instincts", which are passed on genetically from one generation to the next. Also, drive reduction theory, can also be used to explain his motivation for to obtaining a promotion. This theory rests on the concept of homeostasis which...

The Biopsychosocial Model Of Health Essay

Firstly, as a GP, it is crucial to explore the biopsychosocial model of health. One must realise that biological, psychological and social factors all contribute to a person’s overall health. The social dimension cannot be ignored in Anne’s case. According to the World Health Organisation, the social determinants of health are ‘the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age.’ (World Health Organisation. 2013) From the information provided, one could suggest that various social factors have contributed to Anne’s obesity. Anne grew up in a deprived area of the inner city. Growing up in a deprived area does not directly cause obesity, however, social determinants are known as causes of the causes of ill health. (WMA. 2011) Obesity can be caused by consuming too many calories, leading a sedentary lifestyle and not sleeping enough. (Christian Nordqvist. 2011) These, in turn, could be referred to as consequences of living in the inner city. Studies have shown that ‘inner city parents have high levels of anxiety about neighbourhood safety. While these concerns may not entirely explain the discrepancy in activity levels between inner city and suburban children, a safe environment is crucial to increasing opportunities for physical activity.’ (Weir, L.A., Etelson, D. & Brand, D.A. 2006) Similarly, it is possible that Anne’s socio-economic status has influenced her smoking since a person below the poverty threshold is more likely than somebody at or above the threshold to be both a current smoker and not to have quit. (Flint, A.J. & Novotny, T.E. 1997)
Ideally, a GP would like to promote good health and prevent disease. Anne’s children are at high risk of becoming diabetic, given that they are obese. I would do blood and urine tests and advise the family about lifestyle changes necessary to improve their health. Neglecting to acknowledge the social factors affecting their health would be a huge mistake when giving this advice. It is important to recognise that Anne cannot control all of the factors that may be negatively impacting on her health. She is living in a local authority housing estate in a disadvantaged area of the inner city and given that ‘the highest rates of obesity occur among population groups with the highest poverty rates and the least education’ (Adam Drewnowski and SE Specter 2013) one could claim that relocating would be a possible solution. Clearly this would be an unrealistic plan. So too would the notion of buying gym membership for 3 people. So as her GP, I would encourage her to keep a food diary for a week so I could see the amount of calories the family consumed and see their eating habits, to go for a walk every evening with her children and give her brochures with easy recipes for healthy meals.
Anne also needs to be made aware of complications associated with childhood obesity. Having excess weight makes both adults and children susceptible to heart disease, type 2 diabetes and many other conditions....

Loading: Checking Spelling

0%

Read more

Model of health Essay

1321 words - 5 pages Critically discuss and defend the model of 'health' that appears to have the greatest practical relevance for you.The most well-known and widely cited description of ' health' is the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition, which defined health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. (WHO,...

The Health Belief Model Essay

1944 words - 8 pages The Health Belief Model (HBM) of health behaviour change was originally developed in the 1950s in order to understand and explain why vaccination and screening programs being implemented at the time were not meeting with success (Edberg 2007). It was later extended to account for preventive health actions and illness behaviours (Roden 2004). Succinctly, it suggests that behaviour change is influenced by an individuals’ assessment of the benefits...

Social Model of Health of the Maori Tribe

1284 words - 5 pages Discuss and Contrast the Maori and Social models of Health "Health is a social, economic and political issue and above all a fundamental human right. Inequality, poverty, exploitation, violence and injustice are at the root of ill-health" (Braum, 2008, p.3).The Maori model of Health, in particular "Whare Tapa Wha" is based on four simple key aspects to ensure overall general health and well being, Taha Wairua, Taha Hinengaro, Taha Tinana and...

Health and Society: The Health Belief Model

2354 words - 9 pages Health and Society Health behavior used to be classically defined as any activity undertaken by a person believing him/herself to be healthy for the purpose of preventing disease or detecting it at an asymptomatic stage (Kasl and Cobb, 2014). A more modern and appropriate definition would be to refer to any behaviour that influences the health of the person, whether it be health promoting or health damaging. As the GP has already outlined to...

Happiness in the Hierarchy of Needs and Biopsychosocial Models

3113 words - 12 pages Well-being is slowly being recognized as a subjective concept. While others may view an individual’s situation as less than ideal, that person may still be perfectly satisfied with their situation. Taking this into account, researchers focusing on subjective well-being realize that any circumstance may be interpreted differently, depending upon one’s own goals and current life stage (Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology, 2004). Goals and life...

Health promotion in a diverse community using the tannahill model of health promotion

2073 words - 8 pages The aim of this case study is to provide a detailed account of a patients holistic health care needs from a health promotion perspective utilising the Tannahill Model which will be described. In promoting the health of the patient maintaining individuality within a diverse community will also be discussed by the application of the model to the patient.Mary, the patient the study focuses on (surname withheld to uphold confidentiality),...

Critically Discuss The Relevance Of The Holistic Model To Diversity Within Mental Health Services.

1696 words - 7 pages Critically discuss the relevance of the holistic model to diversity within mental health services.The essence of holism within a mental health context takes into account the whole person, and every factor that could effect an individual, it aims to look at the whole picture rather than concentrating on separate parts, for example it would take into account Physical, Psychological, Social (such as culture),...

Management of Workplace, Health & Safety. Use of Accident Causation Model

1405 words - 6 pages This report is on the incident which had taken place in production plant yesterday. Being in-charge of the case and after findings, following is the explanation to the incident.Being a paint producing plant, the main motive is meeting customer demands for paints in the market. Receiving orders in excess to what can be produced is a major concern, it is said that never consume more than your capacity, the end result - you'll end up...

The Model of the Atom

1412 words - 6 pages Humans have attempted to understand the world by coming up with theories, examinations, and investigations to pursue knowledge and discover new things, so that they could have a deeper understanding of what was going on around them. People are still searching for new knowledge by experimenting with new theories and going back to revise some of the old ones, in order to reshape, evaluate, and accept the knowledge that they possess. However, some...

The Multistore Model of Memory

826 words - 3 pages The Multistore Model of Memory The multistore model is a representation of memory based on having more than one different kind of store for remembered information. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) proposed this model based on evidence related to the separate stores of memory (e.g. serial position: primacy recency, forgetting etc.). It suggests that memory comprises of three separate stores, the sensory memory...

The Levels Of Processing Model

1136 words - 5 pages The Levels Of Processing Model The Levels OF Processing (LOP) Model is an alternative to the Multi Store (MS) Model. It does appreciate the idea that both STM and LTM do exist however it does focus on the inter- related processes needed for memory. It looks at the way information is coded and how likely it is to be remembered depending on the type of coding. * The LOP model was based on a study by Craik & Tulving...

Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *