Bach Bwv 861 Analysis Essay

1. BWV – The Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis is a catalogue of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach. It was first published in 1950, edited by Wolfgang Schmieder, the catalogues second edition appeared in 1990. An abbreviated version of second edition, known as BWV2a, was published in 1998. 1126 compositions were assigned a BWV number in the 20th century, more compositions were added to the catalogue in the 21st century. The Anhang of the BWV lists over 200 lost, doubtful, the first edition of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis was published in 1950. It allocated a number to every known composition by Bach. Schmieder published the BWVs second edition in 1990, with some modifications regarding authenticity discriminations, and more added to the main catalogue. Several compositions were repositioned in the structure of chapters organised by genre. In 1998 Alfred Dürr and Yoshitake Kobayashi published an edition of the catalogue. This edition, known as BWV2a, contained a few further updates, new additions to BWV2/BWV2a included, BWV 1081–1126 BWV Anh. 190–213 An upper case R was used as an addition to a BWV number to indicate a reconstructed version, numbers above BWV1126 were added in the 21st century. The numbers assigned to compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach and by others in the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis are widely used for the identification of these compositions. BWV numbers 1 to 1126 appear in the 1998 edition of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, BWV numbers 1127 and 1128 were assigned in the 21st century. Ich sehe, itzt, da ich zur Hochzeit gehe BWV163 – Nur jedem das Seine BWV164 – Ihr, BWV167 – Ihr Menschen, rühmet Gottes Liebe BWV168 – Tue Rechnung. k. a. Mourning Ode BWV199 – Mein Herze schwimmt im Blut BWV200 – Bekennen will ich seinen Namen BWV201 – Geschwinde, ihr wirbelnden Winde a. k. a. The Dispute between Phoebus and Pan BWV202 – Weichet nur, betrübte Schatten BWV203 – Amore traditore BWV204 – Ich bin in mir vergnügt a. k. a. On Contentedness BWV205 – Zerreißet, zersprenget, zertrümmert die Gruft a. k. a. k. a. k. a, coffee Cantata BWV212 – Mer hahn en neue Oberkeet a. k. a. Peasant Cantata BWV213 – Laßt uns sorgen, laßt uns wachen a. k. a, hercules at the Crossroads BWV214 – Tönet, ihr Pauken

2. Johann Sebastian Bach – Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. Bachs compositions include the Brandenburg Concertos, the Goldberg Variations, the Mass in B minor and his music is revered for its technical command, artistic beauty, and intellectual depth. He is now regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time. Bach was born in Eisenach, in the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach and his father Johann Ambrosius Bach was the director of the town musicians, and all of his uncles were professional musicians. His father probably taught him to play the violin and harpsichord, apparently at his own initiative, Bach attended St. Michaels School in Lüneburg for two years. He received the title of Royal Court Composer from Augustus III in 1736, Bachs health and vision declined in 1749, and he died on 28 July 1750. Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, in present-day Germany and he was the son of Johann Ambrosius Bach, the director of the town musicians, and Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt. He was the eighth and youngest child of Johann Ambrosius, who taught him violin. His uncles were all musicians, whose posts included church organists, court chamber musicians. One uncle, Johann Christoph Bach, introduced him to the organ, Bachs mother died in 1694, and his father died eight months later. The 10-year-old Bach moved in with his eldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach, there he studied, performed, and copied music, including his own brothers, despite being forbidden to do so because scores were so valuable and private and blank ledger paper of that type was costly. He received valuable teaching from his brother, who instructed him on the clavichord, also during this time he was taught theology, Latin, Greek, French and Italian at the local gymnasium. By 3 April 1700 Bach and his schoolfriend Georg Erdmann–who was two years Bachs elder–were enrolled in the prestigious St. Michaels School in Lüneburg, some two weeks travel north of Ohrdruf and their journey was probably undertaken mostly on foot. His two years there were critical in exposing Bach to a range of European culture. In addition to singing in the choir, he played the Schools three-manual organ and he came into contact with sons of aristocrats from northern Germany, sent to the highly selective school to prepare for careers in other disciplines. While in Lüneburg, Bach had access to St. Johns Church and possibly used the famous organ from 1553. His role there is unclear, but it probably included menial, non-musical duties, despite strong family connections and a musically enthusiastic employer, tension built up between Bach and the authorities after several years in the post. Bach was dissatisfied with the standard of singers in the choir and he called one of them a Zippel Fagottist

3. The Well-Tempered Clavier – The Well-Tempered Clavier, BWV 846–893, is a collection of two series of Preludes and Fugues in all 24 major and minor keys, composed for solo keyboard by Johann Sebastian Bach. In the German of Bachs time Clavier was a name indicating a variety of keyboard instruments, most typically a harpsichord or clavichord –. The modern German spelling for the collection is Das wohltemperierte Klavier, some 20 years later Bach compiled a second book of the same kind, which became known as The Well-Tempered Clavier, Part Two. Modern editions usually refer to both parts as The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I and The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II, the collection is generally regarded as being among the most influential works in the history of Western classical music. Each set contains twenty-four pairs of preludes and fugues, the first pair is in C major, the second in C minor, the third in C♯ major, the fourth in C♯ minor, and so on. The rising chromatic pattern continues until every key has been represented, the first set was compiled in 1722 during Bachs appointment in Köthen, the second followed 20 years later in 1742 while he was in Leipzig. The C♯ major prelude and fugue in book one was originally in C major – Bach added a key signature of seven sharps, although the Well-Tempered Clavier was the first collection of fully worked keyboard pieces in all 24 keys, similar ideas had occurred earlier. His contemporary Johann Heinrich Kittel also composed a cycle of 12 organ preludes in successive keys, Fischer was published in 1702 and reissued 1715. It is a set of 20 prelude-fugue pairs in ten major and nine minor keys, Bach knew the collection and borrowed some of the themes from Fischer for the Well-Tempered Clavier. Finally, a lost collection by Johann Pachelbel, Fugen und Praeambuln über die gewöhnlichsten Tonos figuratos and it was later shown that this was the work of a composer who was not even born in 1689, Bernhard Christian Weber. It was in written in 1745–50, and in imitation of Bachs example. Bachs title suggests that he had written for a tuning system in which all keys sounded in tune. The opposing system in Bachs day was meantone temperament in which keys with many accidentals sound out of tune, Bach would have been familiar with different tuning systems, and in particular as an organist would have played instruments tuned to a meantone system. There is debate whether Bach meant a range of temperaments, perhaps even altered slightly in practice from piece to piece. During much of the 20th century it was assumed that Bach wanted equal temperament, internal evidence for this may be seen in the fact that in Book 1 Bach paired the E♭ minor prelude with its enharmonic key of D♯ minor for the fugue. This represents an equation of the most tonally remote enharmonic keys where the flat, any performance of this pair would have required both of these enharmonic keys to sound identically tuned, thus implying equal temperament in the one pair, as the entire work implies as a whole. However, research has continued into various unequal systems contemporary with Bachs career, accounts of Bachs own tuning practice are few and inexact. The three most cited sources are Forkel, Bachs first biographer, Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg, who received information from Bachs sons and pupils, and Johann Kirnberger, one of those pupils

4. Musical keyboard – A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers or keys on a musical instrument. Depressing a key on the causes the instrument to produce sounds, either by mechanically striking a string or tine, plucking a string, causing air to flow through a pipe. On electric and electronic keyboards, depressing a key connects a circuit, since the most commonly encountered keyboard instrument is the piano, the keyboard layout is often referred to as the piano keyboard. The twelve notes of the Western musical scale are laid out with the lowest note on the left, because these keys were traditionally covered in ivory they are often called the white notes or white keys. The keys for the remaining five notes—which are not part of the C major scale— are raised, because these keys receive less wear, they are often made of black colored wood and called the black notes or black keys. The pattern repeats at the interval of an octave, the arrangement of longer keys for C major with intervening, shorter keys for the intermediate semitones dates to the 15th century. The break was between middle C and C-sharp, or outside of Iberia between B and C, broken keyboards reappeared in 1842 with the harmonium, the split occurring at E4/F4. The reverse-colored keys on Hammond organs such as the B3, C3, the chromatic compass of keyboard instruments has tended to increase. Harpsichords often extended over five octaves in the 18th century, while most pianos manufactured since about 1870 have 88 keys, some modern pianos have even more notes. While modern synthesizer keyboards commonly have either 61,76 or 88 keys, organs normally have 61 keys per manual, though some spinet models have 44 or 49. An organ pedalboard is a keyboard with long pedals that are played by the organists feet, pedalboards vary in size from 12 to 32 notes. In a typical layout, black note keys have uniform width. In the larger gaps between the keys, the width of the natural notes C, D and E differ slightly from the width of keys F, G, A and B. This allows close to uniform spacing of 12 keys per octave while maintaining uniformity of seven natural keys per octave, over the last three hundred years, the octave span distance found on historical keyboard instruments has ranged from as little as 125 mm to as much as 170 mm. Several reduced-size standards have been proposed and marketed, a 15/16 size and the 7/8 DS Standard keyboard developed by Christopher Donison in the 1970s and developed and marketed by Steinbuhler & Company. There have been variations in the design of the keyboard to address technical and musical issues, thus, an octave would have eight white keys and only four black keys. During the sixteenth century, when instruments were tuned in meantone temperament, some harpsichords were constructed with the G♯. The broken octave, a variation of the short octave

5. Fugue – A fugue usually has three sections, an exposition, a development, and a final entry that contains the return of the subject in the fugues tonic key. In the Middle Ages, the term was used to denote any works in canonic style, by the Renaissance. Since the 17th century, the fugue has described what is commonly regarded as the most fully developed procedure of imitative counterpoint. Most fugues open with a main theme, the subject, which then sounds successively in each voice, when each voice has entered. This is often followed by a passage, or episode, developed from previously heard material. In this sense, a fugue is a style of composition, the form evolved during the 18th century from several earlier types of contrapuntal compositions, such as imitative ricercars, capriccios, canzonas, and fantasias. The famous fugue composer Johann Sebastian Bach shaped his own works after those of Johann Jakob Froberger, Johann Pachelbel, Girolamo Frescobaldi, Dieterich Buxtehude and others. With the decline of sophisticated styles at the end of the period, the fugues central role waned, eventually giving way as sonata form. The English term fugue originated in the 16th century and is derived from the French word fugue or the Italian fuga and this in turn comes from Latin, also fuga, which is itself related to both fugere and fugare. A fugue begins with the exposition and is according to certain predefined rules, in later portions the composer has more freedom. Further entries of the subject will occur throughout the fugue, repeating the accompanying material at the same time, the various entries may or may not be separated by episodes. What follows is a chart displaying a fairly typical fugal outline, S = subject, A = answer, CS = countersubject, T = Tonic, D = Dominant A fugue begins with the exposition of its subject in one of the voices alone in the tonic key. After the statement of the subject, a second voice enters and states the subject with the subject transposed to another key, to make the music run smoothly, it may also have to be altered slightly. A tonal answer is called for when the subject begins with a prominent dominant note. To prevent an undermining of the sense of key, this note is transposed up a fourth to the tonic rather than up a fifth to the supertonic. Answers in the subdominant are also employed for the same reason, while the answer is being stated, the voice in which the subject was previously heard continues with new material. If this new material is reused in later statements of the subject, it is called a countersubject, if this material is only heard once. The countersubject is written in invertible counterpoint at the octave or fifteenth, for example, when the note G sounds in one voice above the note C in lower voice, the interval of a fifth is formed, which is considered consonant and entirely acceptable

6. Major and minor – In Western music, the adjectives major and minor can describe a musical composition, movement, section, scale, key, chord, or interval. Major and minor are frequently referred to in the titles of classical compositions, with regard to intervals, the words major and minor just mean large and small, so a major third is a wider interval, and a minor third a relatively narrow one. The intervals of the second, third, sixth, and seventh may be major or minor, the other uses of major and minor, in general, refer to musical structures containing major thirds or minor thirds. A major scale is one whose third degree is a third above the tonic. A major chord or major triad, similarly, contains a third above the root. In Western music, a chord, in comparison, sounds darker than a major chord. The hallmark that distinguishes major keys from minor is whether the scale degree is major or minor. This alteration in the third degree greatly changes the mood of the music, the minor scale can be described in two different ways. Minor keys are said to have a more interesting, possibly sadder sound than plain major scales. The minor mode, with its sixth and seventh degrees, offers nine notes, in C, C-D-E♭-F-G-A♭-A♮-B♭-B♮, over the major modes seven, in C. Harry Partch considers minor as, the faculty of ratios. The minor key and scale are considered less justifiable than the major, with Paul Hindemith calling it a clouding of major. The relative minor of a key has the same key signature and starts down a minor third, for example. Similarly the relative major of a minor key starts up a third, for example. This is in contrast with, for instance, transposition, transposition is done by moving all intervals up or down a certain constant interval, and does change key, but does not change mode, which requires the alteration of intervals. By analogy, the scales are given stereotypically masculine qualities. German uses the word Tongeschlecht for tonality, and the words Dur for major, major and minor chords may each be found in both the major and minor scales, constructed on different degrees of each. In the natural scale, all scale degrees are the same as the relative major

7. Key (music) – In music theory, the key of a piece is a group of pitches, or scale upon which a music composition is created in classical, Western art, and Western pop music. Notes and chords other than the tonic in a piece create varying degrees of tension, the key may be in the major or minor mode, although major is assumed in a phrase like this piece is in C. Popular songs are usually in a key, and so is classical music during the common practice period, longer pieces in the classical repertoire may have sections in contrasting keys. Methods that establish the key for a piece can be complicated to explain. The key signature is not always a reliable guide to the key of a written piece, occasionally, a piece in a mode such as Mixolydian or Dorian is written with a major or minor key signature appropriate to the tonic, and accidentals throughout the piece. Pieces in modes not corresponding to major or minor keys may sometimes be referred to as being in the key of the tonic. A piece using some type of harmony, resolving e. g. to A. An instrument may be said to be in a key, an unrelated usage referring to the pitches considered natural for that instrument. For example, modern trumpets are usually in the key of B♭, a key relationship is the relationship between keys, measured by common tones and nearness on the circle of fifths. The key usually identifies the tonic note and/or chord, the note and/or major or minor triad that represents the point of rest for a piece. For example, the key of G includes the following pitches, G, A, B, C, D, E, and F♯, and its corresponding tonic chord is G—B—D. Most often at the beginning and end of traditional pieces during the common practice period, a key may be major or minor. Music can be described as being in the Dorian mode, or Phrygian, languages other than English may use other key naming systems. Although many musicians confuse key with scale, a scale is a set of notes typically used in a key, while the key is the center of gravity. All of these notes and chords, however, are used in patterns that serve to establish the primacy of the tonic note. Cadences are particularly important in the establishment of key, even cadences that do not include the tonic note or triad, such as half cadences and deceptive cadences, serve to establish key because those chord sequences imply a unique diatonic context. Short pieces may stay in a single key throughout, more elaborate pieces may establish the main key, then modulate to another key, or a series of keys, then back to the original key. In the Baroque it was common to repeat a phrase of music, called a ritornello

8. G minor – G minor is a minor scale based on G, consisting of the pitches G, A, B♭, C, D, E♭, and F. For the harmonic scale, the F is raised to F♯. Its relative major is B-flat major, and its parallel major is G major, changes needed for the melodic and harmonic versions of the scale are written in with accidentals as necessary. G minor is one of two flat key signatures that require a sharp for the leading-tone, though Mozart touched on various minor keys in his symphonies, G minor is the only minor key he used as a main key for his numbered symphonies. In the Classical period, symphonies in G minor almost always used four horns, two in G and two in B-flat alto

9. Key signature – In musical notation, a key signature is a set of sharp, flat, and rarely, natural symbols placed together on the staff. Key signatures are written immediately after the clef at the beginning of a line of musical notation, although they can appear in other parts of a score. A key signature designates notes that are to be played higher or lower than the natural notes and applies through to the end of the piece or up to the next key signature. A sharp symbol on a line or space in the key raises the notes on that line or space one semitone above the natural. An accidental is an exception to the key signature, applying only in the measure in which it appears. Although a key signature may be using any combination of sharp and flat symbols, fifteen diatonic key signatures are by far the most common. A piece scored using a diatonic key signature and no accidentals contains notes of at most seven of the twelve pitch classes. Each major and minor key has a key signature that sharpens or flattens the notes which are used in its scale. However, it is not uncommon for a piece to be written with a key signature that does not match its key, for example, in some Baroque pieces, for example, in his Sonata No.31 in A♭ major, Op. In principle, any piece can be written with any key signature, using accidentals to correct the pattern of whole, the purpose of the key signature is to minimize the number of such accidentals required to notate the music. The sequence of sharps or flats in key signatures is generally rigid in modern music notation and this allows musicians to identify the key simply by the number of sharps or flats, rather than their position on the staff. For example, if a key signature has one sharp, it must be an F sharp. However, in 20th-century music, there are exceptions to this, where a piece uses an unorthodox or synthetic scale. This may consist of a number of sharps or flats that are not the normal ones, key signatures of this kind can be found in the music of Béla Bartók, for example. The effect of a key signature continues throughout a piece or movement, for example, if a five-sharp key signature is placed at the beginning of a piece, every A in the piece in any octave will be played as A sharp, unless preceded by an accidental. In a score containing more than one instrument, all the instruments are usually written with the key signature. Exceptions include, If an instrument is a transposing instrument, If an instrument is a percussion instrument with indeterminate pitch. Composers usually omit the key signature for timpani parts. g, timpani in D–A, if they were tuned A and D

10. Flat (music) – In music, flat, or bemolle means lower in pitch. In music notation, the symbol, ♭, derived from a stylised lowercase b. Intonation or tuning is said to be flat when it is below the true pitch, the order of flats in the key signatures of music notation, following the circle of fifths, is B♭, E♭, A♭, D♭, G♭, C♭, and F♭. A mnemonic for this is, Before Eating A Doughnut Get Coffee First, the Unicode character ♭ can be found in the block Miscellaneous Symbols, its HTML entity is &#9837. Under twelve tone equal temperament, C♭ for instance is the same as, or enharmonically equivalent to, B♮, in any other tuning system, such enharmonic equivalences in general do not exist. To allow extended just intonation, composer Ben Johnston uses a sharp as an accidental to indicate a note is raised 70.6 cents, double flats also exist, which look like and lower a note by two semitones, or a whole step. Less often one will encounter half, or three-quarter, or otherwise altered flats, the Unicode character

11. New Bach Edition – The New Bach Edition, in German Neue Bach-Ausgabe, is the second complete edition of the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, published by Bärenreiter. The name is short for Johann Sebastian Bach, New Edition of the Complete Works and it is a historical-critical edition of Bachs complete works by the Johann Sebastian Bach Institute in Göttingen and the Bach Archive in Leipzig, When Bach died most of his work was unpublished. The first complete edition of Bachs music was published in the half of the nineteenth century by the Bach Gesellschaft. The second complete edition includes some discoveries made since 1900, the significance of the NBE lies more in its incorporation of the latest scholarship. Although the NBE is an urtext edition rather than a facsimile edition, in 1950, the commemorations of the bicentennial of Bachs death in Göttingen and Leipzig led to the initiative to publish his complete works in a critical scientific edition. The Bach Archive and the Johann Sebastian Bach Institute collaborated, their directors Werner Neumann, initially the duration of the edition was estimated as 15 to 20 years, but the scientific work with the sources required much more time than anticipated. The first volumes appeared in 1954, the edition was completed in June 2007. The edition contains in eight series over 100 volumes of scores, the ninth series contains Addenda, and furthermore there is a Supplement of 9 volumes, I. Keyboard and Lute Works VI. Chamber Music VII, canons, Musical Offering, Art of Fugue IX. Addenda Supplement, Bach Documents Each Score volume contains a preface, in the Score volumes variants and fragments of compositions are published along with complete works. The Critical Commentary volumes describe the history and sources, and their interdependence, for each composition, the New Bach Edition presents a reliable version of Bachs music for both scientists and performers. Its strict philological methods were exemplary for critical editions in the second half of the 20th century. In preparation for the NBE, lost compositions were found, whereas some known compositions proved to be not Bachs works, the examination of the sources corrected the chronology of his compositions. The second revised edition of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, and the Bach-Digital website refer to the NBE volume, in addition to listing the page number of the score, the Bach Digital website also mentions the page number where the composition is discussed in the corresponding Critical Commentary volume. In February 2010 the Bach Archive and the publisher announced a revision of single volumes, in order to new sources. The first in series of revisions was the Mass in B minor. Approximately 15 more volumes are planned, including Weimar cantatas, the St John Passion, the motets, the violin sonatas, in 2001 the German Association of Music Publishers awarded a special prize to the New Bach Edition in recognition of editorial achievement. Uwe Wolf, Contributions by Georg von Dadelsen, Alfred Dürr, Hans-Joachim Schulze, Frieder Zschoch, die Neue Bach-Ausgabe 1954–2007, Eine Dokumentation

12. International Music Score Library Project – Since its launch on February 16,2006, over 370,000 scores and 42,000 recordings for over 110,000 works by over 14,000 composers have been uploaded. The project uses MediaWiki software to provide contributors with a familiar interface, since June 6,2010, IMSLP has also included public domain and licensed recordings in its scope, to allow for study by ear. The site was launched on February 16,2006, the library consists mainly of scans of old musical editions out of copyright. In addition, it admits scores by composers who wish to share their music with the world by releasing it under a Creative Commons license. One of the projects of IMSLP was the sorting and uploading of the complete works of Johann Sebastian Bach in the Bach-Gesellschaft Ausgabe. Besides providing a repository, IMSLP offers possibilities as a musicological encyclopaedia, since multiple. Also, pages on publishers provide valuable information, and the pages themselves often contain a large quantity of information. IMSLP is recommended as a tool by MIT, which also uses it extensively for providing scores for its OpenCourseWare courses. In 2007–2015, IMSLP / Petrucci Music Library used logo based on a score, the score image in the background was taken from the beginning of the very first printed book of music, the Harmonice Musices Odhecaton. It was published in Venice, Italy in 1501 by Ottaviano Petrucci, in 2016, IMSLP changed its logo to a clean wordmark, featuring its two project names – IMSLP and Petrucci Music Library. In 2009, IMSLP won the MERLOT Classics award for Music and it was named one of the Top 100 Web Sites of 2009 by PC Magazine. On October 19,2007, the IMSLP closed following legal demands from Universal Edition of Vienna, at first I thought this letter would be similar in content to the first Cease and Desist letter I received in August. I cannot apologize enough to all IMSLP contributors, who have done so much for IMSLP in the last two years, in response, director Michael S. Hart of Project Gutenberg offered support to keep the project online. This offer was declined by Feldmahler, who voiced concern about having the project hosted in the United States, on November 2,2007, Michael Geist, a prominent Canadian copyright academic, wrote an article for the BBC discussing the specifics and the wider implications of this case. IMSLP went back online on June 30,2008, although the server is located in Canada, files which are not public domain in the US were until July 2010 flagged, for Technical Block or Temporary Block, and could not be viewed. The FAQ posted in their forum stated, Unfortunately, these temporary blocks will be until further notice – possibly all the way until the expiration of term in the USA. After an initial phase, flagged items have disappeared thanks to the introduction of regional servers operated by unaffiliated organizations. On 21 April 2011, the Music Publishers Association issued a DMCA takedown notice against the IMSLP, Go Daddy, the domain name registrar for the IMSLP, removed the domain name imslp. org, leaving it inaccessible

13. Prelude and Fugue in D major, BWV 532 – Johann Sebastian Bachs Prelude and Fugue in D major is a prelude and fugue written for the organ in c.1710, and has an approximate duration of 11½ minutes. Like most of Bachs organ compositions, this piece was written during his tenure in Weimar between 1709 and 1717. Many of his greatest and most well known works were written during this period, including, for example. Indeed, his fame on the instrument grew and he was visited by students of the organ to hear him play. The Prelude and Fugue in D major was composed in 1710. However, it was written before Bach codified the clear two-section prelude and fugue in the form of what is used in the The Well-Tempered Clavier, BWV 846–893. This is because BWV532 features a lengthy, complex, self-contained fugue preceded by a multisectional prelude, the piece is in two sections, a prelude and a fugue. Both the sections are in D major but, to begin with, the prelude commences with a semi-quaver scale from the pedals, and then the manuals begin with an intricate quaver pattern between the hands. Another run from the pedals is then followed by a continuation of the pattern from the right-hand. The quaver pattern then repeats one octave lower, the pedals then play arpeggiated patterns which begin a repeated theme and slow down throughout. A sustained pedal then accompanies the manuals, which have a dotted quaver, semi-quaver rhythm and this then turns into a repeated G♯, B demi-semi-quaver rhythm. This then slows to a series of repeated cadences, a new phrase then begins with an ascending scale in the manuals leading up to a large D major chord. A new tempo is then introduced, Alla breve, and then a large phrase is introduced with a very polyphonic texture, a section then starts with chords played in the manuals and the quavers played in the pedals. This continues for long period of time until the left hand takes the tune. When this section finishes, a new tempo of Adagio begins, a new theme then arrives with slow quavers on the lower manual and pedal and ascending scales in the upper manual. The prelude then concludes with a theme, on broken arpeggios and some slow. The subject of this fugue is eight measures long and consist of tight figurations encompassing an entire octave, Bach takes this subject firstly through the relative minor and then the mediant minor, and then to the minor harmony of the leading tone and the major harmony on the supertonic. This work has been transcribed for piano by Ferruccio Busoni as BV B20 in 1888

14. Great Fantasia and Fugue in G minor, BWV 542 – The Great Fantasia and Fugue in G minor, BWV542, is an organ prelude and fugue by Johann Sebastian Bach. It acquired that name to distinguish it from the earlier Little Fugue in G minor and this piece is not to be confused with the Prelude and Fugue in A minor, which is also for organ and also sometimes called the Great. It was transcribed for piano by Franz Liszt as S.463, modern arrangers have orchestrated the work. Wilhadi, Stade, Germany Score of Ik ben gegroet van

15. Prelude and Fugue in A minor, BWV 543 – Prelude and Fugue in A minor, BWV543 is a piece of organ music written by Johann Sebastian Bach sometime around his years as court organist to the Duke of Saxe-Weimar. An alternate version of the piece is numbered BWV 543a. As for this version only the prelude is different, that version of the prelude is sometimes indicated by BWV 543/1a. The fugue of BWV543 is the incarnation of Bachs harpsichord Fugue in A minor, BWV944. The Toccata-like prelude—in the stylus phantasticus—bears the marks of Bachs early, the fugue is in 6/8 time, unlike the prelude, which is in 4/4 time. The fugue theme, like that of the prelude, is composed of arpeggiated chords and downward sequences, due to the sequential nature of the subject, the majority of the fugue is composed of sequences or cadences. The Fugue ends in one of Bachs most toccata-like, virtuosic cadenzas in the harmonic minor, unlike most of Bachs minor-key keyboard works, it ends on a minor chord rather than a picardy third. Because of the pieces overall rhapsodic nature, many organists play this piece freely, liszt included it in his transcriptions of the six great preludes and fugues BWV 543-8 for piano. Italian composer Ennio Morricone created a variation of Prelude and Fugue in A minor for the theme of the French movie The Sicilian Clan

16. Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565 – The Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV565, is a piece of organ music written, according to its oldest extant sources, by Johann Sebastian Bach. The piece opens with a section, followed by a fugue that ends in a coda. It has a claim to being the most famous work in the organ repertoire, scholars differ as to when it was composed. It could have been as early as c.1704, which would be one explanation for the unusual features, for a century after its creation the only certainty about this Toccata and Fugue is that it survived in a manuscript written by Johannes Ringk. The first publication of the piece, in the Bach Revival era, was in 1833, through the efforts of Felix Mendelssohn, who also performed the piece in an acclaimed concert in 1840. That popularity further increased, due for example to its inclusion in Walt Disneys Fantasia, in the last quarter of the 20th century scholars like Peter Williams and Rolf-Dietrich Claus published their studies on the piece, and argued against its authenticity. Bach scholars like Christoph Wolff defended the attribution to Bach, other commentators ignored the authenticity doubts or considered the attribution issue undecided. The only extant near-contemporary source for BWV565 is a copy by Johannes Ringk. A broad estimate is that the manuscript was written somewhere in the period from ten years before Bachs death in 1750 to ten years after it, Ringk produced his first copy of a Bach score in 1730 when he was 12. At the time Ringk was a student of Bachs former student Johann Peter Kellner at Gräfenroda, and probably faithfully copied what his teacher put before him. The title page of Ringks manuscript writes the title of the work in Italian as Toccata con Fuga, names Johann Sebastian Bach as the composer of the piece, which is usually seen as the key signature being D minor. However, in Ringks manuscript the staves have no ♭ accidental at the key, in this sense, in Ringks manuscript, the piece is written down in D Dorian mode. Another piece listed as Bachs was also known as Toccata and Fugue in D minor and it was that piece, BWV538, that received the Dorian nickname, that qualifier being effectively used to distinguish it from BWV565. Most score editions of BWV565 use the D minor key signature, Ringks manuscript does not use a separate stave for the pedal part, which was common in the 18th century. Printed editions of the BWV565 organ score invariably write the line on a separate stave. In Ringks manuscript the upper stave is written using the soprano clef. Whether these derive from an earlier manuscript independent from Ringks is debated by scholars and these near-identical 19th-century copies, the version Felix Mendelssohn knew, use the treble clef and a separate stave for the pedal. In the later copies the work is named for instance Adagio and Fuga, Ringks copy abounds in Italian tempo markings, fermatas and staccato dots, all very unusual features for pre–1740 German music

17. Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor, BWV 582 – Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor is an organ piece by Johann Sebastian Bach. The autograph manuscript of BWV582 is currently considered lost, the work, as is typical for Bachs, there is some evidence that the original was notated in organ tablature. It is not known precisely when Bach composed the work, and it is possible that BWV582 was composed in Arnstadt soon after Bachs return from Lübeck. It is possible that the half of the ostinato was also taken from Raison. See Example 1 for Bachs and Raisons themes, however, some scholars dispute Raisons influence. The passacaglia is in 3/4 time typical of the form, Bachs ostinato comprises eight bars, which is unusual but not unheard of, an ostinato of the same length is used, for example, in Johann Kriegers organ passacaglia. There are 20 variations in BWV 582/1, the first begins with a typical C minor affekt, a painful longing according to Spitta, similar to the beginning of Buxtehudes Chaconne in C minor. Numerous attempts have been made to figure out an overarching structure of the work. Particularly important attempts were made by Christoph Wolff and Siegfried Vogelsänder, some scholars have speculated that there is a symbolic component to the structure of the work, for instance, Martin Radulescu argues that BWV 582/1 is in the form of a cross. There is agreement among most scholars that the Passacaglia builds up until its climax in variation twelve and this is followed by three quiet variations, forming a short intermezzo, and then the remaining five variations end the work. Alain also points out that the numbers are inversions, the passacaglia is followed, without break, by a double fugue. The first half of the ostinato is used as the first subject. Both are heard simultaneously in the beginning of the fugue, a countersubject enters immediately afterwards and is then used throughout the piece. When the three subjects appear simultaneously, they never do so in the combination of voices twice. As the fugue progresses, Bach ventures into major keys and the time between the statements increases from 1–3 bars to 7–13, even though it is only 8 bars long, there is a brief reprise of the passacaglia after the fugue. It has also arranged for a brass quintet by Neil Balm. A transcription for viol consort was recorded by the UK group Fretwork in 2005, in 2006, the passacaglia was transcribed for handbells by Kevin McChesney and recorded by Cast of Bronze from Dallas, Texas. The passacaglia was transcribed by Donald Hunsberger for the Eastman Wind Ensemble

18. Great Eighteen Chorale Preludes – The works form an encyclopedic collection of large-scale chorale preludes, in a variety of styles harking back to the previous century, that Bach gradually perfected during his career. Together with the Orgelbüchlein, the Schübler Chorales and the book of the Clavier-Übung. As his son Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach mentions in his obituary or nekrolog, here he also wrote most of his organ works. It is probable that the chorale preludes composed then served some ceremonial function during the services in the court chapel. When Bach moved to his positions as Kapellmeister in Köthen in 1717 and cantor at the Thomaskirche in Leipzig in 1723. The first thirteen chorale preludes BWV 651–663 were added by Bach himself between 1739 and 1742, supplemented by BWV664 and 665 in 1746–7, only the first page of the last choral prelude BWV668, the so-called deathbed chorale, has survived, recorded by an unknown copyist. The piece was published in 1751 as an appendix to the Art of the Fugue, with the title Wenn wir in höchsten Nöthen sein. There have been accounts of the circumstances surrounding the composition of this chorale. The piece, however, is now accepted as a reworking of the shorter chorale prelude Wenn wir in höchsten Nöthen sein from the Orgelbüchlein. The breadth of styles and forms represented by the Great Eighteen is as diverse as that of Bachs Well Tempered Clavier for the keyboard, the pieces are on a large and often epic scale, compared with the miniature intimacy of the choral preludes of the Orgelbüchlein. Many of the chorale preludes pay homage to older models in the German liturgical tradition. It is a mid-eighteenth century salute to the traditions of the previous century. The Renaissance motet, in style, forms the model for the chorale motet. Each line of the chorale is established as a point of imitation for the different parts and this style, the earliest used by Bach, was that employed in his Mühlhausen cantatas, such as the funeral cantata Actus Tragicus, BWV106. A common distinctive feature is the use of figures to illustrate particular lines or even words in the hymn text. The chorale partita is a set of variations on a chorale melody, normally each variation repeats the chorale melody and is essentially a separate movement. Bach, however, broke the norm in the two chorale preludes of this genre, BWV656 and 667, which each have only a number of variations. This might be a homage to Buxtehude, who had written similar partitas and whose music, in the ornamental chorale, a form invented and popularized in Northern Germany by Scheidemann, the chorale melody is taken by one voice in an elaborate and highly embellished form

19. Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue – The Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue in D minor, BWV903, is a work for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach probably composed it during his time in Köthen from 1717 to 1723, the piece was already regarded as a unique masterpiece during his lifetime. It is now played on piano. An autograph of this work is not known, the musicologist Walther Siegmund-Schultze pinpoints the work to the fermenting Köthen works because of its improvisatory and expressive nature, using all keys. At least 16 different handwritten copies of the score are extant, the oldest copy is only an early, two-bar shorter variant of the fantasia. It was written by Bachs pupil Johann Tobias Krebs and was created after 1717, two other copies emerged around 1730 that include the fugue, they were possibly written by Gottfried Grünewald or Christoph Graupner. A copy of the work comes from Johann Friedrich Agricola and was written between 1738 and 1740. A manuscript from 1750 is extant, and a copy by Johann Nikolaus Forkel. From these two manuscripts come the first printed editions of the piece by Franz Anton Hoffmeister and Friedrich Konrad Griepenkerl, because of its characteristics the piece became known as Chromatic, a term that did not originate with Bach. The second part is a series of clear and remotely modulating soft leading chords that are written in the oldest copies as Arpeggio. The third part is entitled Recitative and includes a variety of ornamented, enriched and this part contains several enharmonic equivalents. The recitative finishes with passages that are chromatically sinking diminished seventh chords over above the point on D. The theme of the consists of an ascending half-step line from A to C. Both works are exceptional and therefore particularly popular compositions in Bachs keyboard music and this assessment was shared by Bach contemporaries. His son Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, who was himself an excellent improviser, the first biographer of Bach, Johann Nikolaus Forkel, wrote, I have given much effort to find another piece of this type by Bach. This fantasy is unique and has never been second to none, the work was a prime example of romantic Bach interpretation in the 19th century. Felix Mendelssohn, the founder of the Bach revival, played this fantasy in February 1840 and 1841 in a series of concerts at the Leipzig Gewandhaus and thus delighted the audience and he attributed this effect to its free interpretation of the arpeggios of the fantasy. He used the sound effects of the grand piano through a differentiated dynamics, highlighting high notes

20. English Suites (Bach) – These six suites for keyboard are thought to be the earliest set that Bach composed. It has also suggested that the name is a tribute to Charles Dieupart, whose fame was greatest in England. Unlike the unmeasured preludes of French lute or keyboard style, however, 1st Suite in A major, BWV806 Prelude, Allemande, Courante I, Courante II, Double I, Double II, Sarabande, Bourrée I, Bourrée II, Gigue. This suite is unusual in that it has two Courantes, and two Doubles for the second Courante and this suite also departs from the scheme of the other five, in that the Prelude is short and based on a theme from a suite by Dieupart. The Preludes of the other five suites in this series are based on the Allegro of a Concerto Grosso form

21. French Suites (Bach) – The French Suites, BWV 812–817, are six suites which Johann Sebastian Bach wrote for the clavier between the years of 1722 and 1725. Although Suites 1–4 are typically dated to 1722, it is possible that the first was written somewhat earlier, the suites were later given the name French. Likewise, the English Suites received a later appellation, the name was popularised by Bachs biographer Johann Nikolaus Forkel, who wrote in his 1802 biography of Bach, One usually calls them French Suites because they are written in the French manner. This claim, however, is inaccurate, like Bachs other suites, there is no surviving definitive manuscript of these suites, and ornamentation varies both in type and in degree across manuscripts. The Courantes of the first and third suites are in the French style, in any case Bach also employed dance movements that are foreign to the French manner. Some of the manuscripts that have come down to us are titled Suites Pour Le Clavecin, two additional suites, one in A minor, the other in E-flat Major, are linked to the familiar six in some manuscripts. The Overture in the French style, BWV831, which Bach published as the part of Clavier-Übung, is a suite in the French style. Some manuscripts have not found in other copies, which are probably spurious. Allemande Courante Sarabande Menuet I/II Gigue Allemande Courante Sarabande Air Menuet Menuet – Trio Gigue Allemande Courante Sarabande Anglaise – Bach originally titled this movement Gavotte. Gigue Allemande Courante Sarabande Gavotte Air Gigue Bachs Suite No.4 also exists in an altered Version, that includes a Prelude, a second Gavotte. This variant version is published as BWV 815a, Allemande Courante Sarabande Gavotte Bourrée Loure Gigue The first few bars of this suite were written in 1722, but it was not completed until 1723

22. Goldberg Variations – The Goldberg Variations, BWV988, is a work written for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach, consisting of an aria and a set of 30 variations. First published in 1741, the work is considered to be one of the most important examples of variation form, the Variations are named after Johann Gottlieb Goldberg, who may have been the first performer. The Count was often ill and had sleepless nights, at such times, Goldberg, who lived in his house, had to spend the night in an antechamber, so as to play for him during his insomnia. But since at this time all his works were models of art. Yet he produced only a work of this kind. Thereafter the Count always called them his variations and he never tired of them, and for a long time sleepless nights meant, Dear Goldberg, do play me one of my variations. Bach was perhaps never so rewarded for one of his works as for this, the Count presented him with a golden goblet filled with 100 louis-dor. Nevertheless, even had the gift been a thousand times larger, Forkel wrote his biography in 1802, more than 60 years after the events related, and its accuracy has been questioned. The lack of dedication on the page also makes the tale of the commission unlikely. Goldbergs age at the time of publication has also cited as grounds for doubting Forkels tale, although it must be said that he was known to be an accomplished keyboardist. Williams contends that the Forkel story is entirely spurious, arnold Schering has suggested that the aria on which the variations are based was not written by Bach. More recent scholarly literature suggests there is no basis for such doubts. Rather unusually for Bachs works, the Goldberg Variations were published in his own lifetime, the publisher was Bachs friend Balthasar Schmid of Nuremberg. Schmid printed the work by making engraved copper plates, thus the notes of the first edition are in Schmids own handwriting, the edition contains various printing errors. The title page, shown in the figure above, reads in German, / Denen Liebhabern zur Gemüths- / Ergetzung verfertiget von / Johann Sebastian Bach / Königl. Hoff- / Compositeur, Capellmeister, u. Directore / Chori Musici in Leipzig, / Nürnberg in Verlegung / Balthasar Schmids Keyboard exercise, consisting of an ARIA with diverse variations for harpsichord with two manuals. The term Clavier Ubung had been assigned by Bach to some of his previous keyboard works. Klavierübung part 1 was the six partitas, part 2 the Italian Concerto and French Overture, although Bach also called his variations Klavierübung, he did not specifically designate them as the fourth in this series

23. Bach: The Goldberg Variations (Glenn Gould album) – Bach, The Goldberg Variations is the 1955 debut album of Canadian classical pianist Glenn Gould. An interpretation of Johann Sebastian Bachs Goldberg Variations, the work launched Goulds career as an international pianist. Sales were astonishing for an album, it was reported to have sold 40,000 copies by 1960. By year 2000, the sale of his 1981 recording of the Goldberg Variations exceeded two million copies, the work was considered esoteric and technically demanding, requiring awkward hand crossing in various places when played on a piano. Goulds album both established the Goldberg Variations within the classical repertoire and made him an internationally famous pianist nearly overnight. First played in concert by Gould in 1954, the composition was a staple of Goulds performances in the following the recording. The recordings were made in 1955 at Columbia Records 30th Street studio in Manhattan over four days between June 10 and June 16, a few weeks after Gould signed his contract, Columbia Masterworks Records, the companys classical music division, released the album in January 1956. Bach, The Goldberg Variations became Columbias bestselling classical album and earned Gould an international reputation, the record is now in the catalog of Sony Classical Records. At least one record-company executive questioned Goulds choice of the then-obscure Goldberg Variations for his recorded debut, in a 1981 interview, Gould reflected on the studios situation, I think the objections had, which were mild and expressed in a most friendly fashion, were quite logical. They thought that some more modest undertaking was advisable. Columbia recognized his talent and tolerated his eccentricities, on June 25 the company issued a press release describing Goulds unique habits and accoutrements. He brought to the studio a special chair, bottles of pills. The album gained attention for Goulds unique pianistic method, which incorporated a finger technique involving great clarity of articulation, even at great speed, and little sustaining pedal. Goulds piano teacher, Alberto Guerrero, had encouraged Gould to practice finger tapping, according to Guerrero, tapping taught the pianist an economy of muscle movement that would enable precision at high speeds. Gould tapped each Goldberg variation before recording it, which took about 32 hours, the extreme tempi of the 1955 performance made for a short record, as did Goulds decision not to play many of the repeats. The length of a performance of the Goldberg Variations can therefore vary drastically, Goulds 1955 recording is 38 minutes 34 seconds long, while his reconsidered, by way of contrast, fellow Canadian Angela Hewitts 1999 record is 78,32. The artists ability to perfect his work in the studio—what Gould called take-twoness—attracted Gould from the beginning and he recorded no fewer than 21 versions of the introductory aria before being satisfied. Over the course of his career, Gould became more and more interested in the possibilities of the studio


J.S. Bach’s
Well-Tempered Clavier

In-depth Analysis and Interpretation

Volume IPreludes and Fugues inC c C# c# D d
Volume IIPreludes and Fugues inEb d# E e F f
Volume IIIPreludes and Fugues inF# f# G g Ab g#
Volume IVPreludes and Fugues inA a Bb bb B b

Publication Data
Bruhn, Siglind, 1951-
J. S. Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier. In-depth Analysis and Interpretation.  

ISBN 962 580 017 4, 962 580 018 2, 962 580 019 0, 962 580 020 4

1. Bach Piano Music. 2. Bach Analysis. 3. Bach Style and Performance Practice. 4. Bach Interpretation. I. Title 

Copyright 1993 by Siglind Bruhn
Originally published by MAINER International Ltd.
20/F, World Wide House, 19 Des Voeux Road, Central, G.P.O. Box 3783, Hong Kong
Printed in Hong Kong by Trio Advertising Ltd.

Transcription for the Web published 2002-2003.





a) The "Well-Tempered" Scale
b) The Clavier
c) The Preludes in Bach's WTC
d) The Fugues in Bach's WTC






Recommended Further Reading



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