Ferhat Abbas Essay

Ferhat Abbas, in full Ferhat Mekki Abbas, (born Aug. 24, 1899, Chahna, near Constantine, Alg.—died Dec. 24, 1985, Algiers), politician and leader of the national independence movement who served as the first president of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic.

Son of a Muslim official in the Algerian civil service, Abbas received an entirely French education at Philippeville (now Skikda) and Constantine and at the University of Algiers. After two years’ service with the French Army, he became a pharmacist at Sétif and was elected first to the municipal council of Sétif and then to the general council in Constantine. Early in his political career, he advocated collaboration with the French, the assimilation of the “native element in French society,” and the abolition of colonialism to bring about the emancipation of the Algerian Muslims as French citizens. Disillusioned by the French in 1938, he organized the Union Populaire Algérienne, which proposed equal rights for French and Algerians while preserving the Algerian culture and language. Nevertheless, at the outbreak of World War II, Abbas enlisted in the medical corps of the French Army.

On Feb. 10, 1943, the “Manifesto of the Algerian People,” prepared by Abbas, was proclaimed. It was subsequently presented to the French and the Allied authorities in North Africa. The manifesto, which reflected a fundamental change in its author’s political position, not only condemned French colonial rule but also called for the application of the principle of self-determination and demanded an Algerian constitution granting equality to all inhabitants of Algeria. In May, Abbas, along with a number of his colleagues, wrote an addendum to the manifesto, which envisioned a sovereign Algerian nation. It was presented to the French on June 26. On its rejection by the French governor general, Ferhat Abbas and an Algerian working-class leader, Messali Hadj, formed the Amis du Manifeste et de la Liberté (AML; Friends of the Manifesto and Liberty), which envisioned an Algerian autonomous republic federated to a renewed, anti-colonial France. After the suppression of the AML and a year’s imprisonment, in 1946 he founded the Union Démocratique du Manifeste Algérien (UDMA; Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto), which advocated cooperation with France in the formation of the Algerian state. Abbas’ moderate and conciliatory attempts failed to evoke a sympathetic response from the French colonial officials, however, and in 1956 he escaped to Cairo to join the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN), an Algerian organization committed to revolutionary struggle for independence from France.

On Sept. 18, 1958, the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic was formed with Ferhat Abbas as president. He resigned in 1961 but was elected president of the Algerian Constituent Assembly in 1962, when Algeria gained independence. Despite his political alliance with the revolutionary and Socialist FLN, he remained an exponent of parliamentary institutions and constitutionalism. To protest the drafting of the Algerian constitution by the FLN outside the Constituent Assembly, he resigned his post as the assembly’s president in August 1963 and was expelled from the FLN. An opponent of the then-president, Ahmed Ben Bella, he was placed under house arrest in 1964 but was released the following year.

Ferhat Abbas described the Algerian War of Independence in La Nuit coloniale (1962; “The Colonial Night”). He is also the author of Le Jeune Algérien: de la colonie vers la province (1931; “The Young Algerian: From Colony to Province”) and Autopsie d’une guerre (1980; “Autopsy of a War”).

Essay/Term paper: Buffalo bill cody- wild west showman

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William Frederick Cody, also known as Buffalo Bill, was born
into an anti-slavery family. He had a rough childhood, but despite
this hardship he grew up to be an adventurous wild west showman, and
achieve many historical goals.
On February 26, 1846, near the small town of LeClair, Iowa,
William F. Cody was born to Isacc and Marry Ann Cody. At the time
William had two sisters, Martha and Julia, and a brother, Samuel.
But he ended up with three more sisters, Eliza, Helen, and May, and
another brother, Charlie.
In the first eight years of his childhood, William grew up on a farm
his father owned and worked. During this time, William had plenty of
space on the Plains to play with his brother Sam and his black dog,
Turk. William also had some young Indian friends he met while on a
picnic with his sisters. The Indians were trying to steal the Cody's
lunch, but Bill stopped them and became friends with them. Besides
picnics, young Will also enjoyed riding horses, having pretend Indian
fights with Sam, and hunting in the woods. Sadly, Samuel died when
he was thrown from his horse. Because of this, William not only lost
a brother but he lost a very good friend.
In 1854 William, along with his anti-slavery family, moved
near the city of Leavenworth, Kansas. This was not an easy move for
the Cody family seeing how most of that part of Kansas was pro
slavery. They were worried about this because earlier in Iowa a
dispute about slavery between Isacc and his brother Elijah, led to
Elijah stabbing Isacc. Luckily, he survived and nothing like this
happened in Kansas. While in Iowa, Bill had received no education.
After moving to Kansas he attended several sessions of country school
organized by his father. In the two and a half months he attended,
Bill learned to read and write which would help him in his future
In order to help his family after his father's death in 1857,
William took his first job working for the firm, Russel Majors &
Waddel, making wagon-train trips across the Plains. It was rough,
but William enjoyed these frequent trips. Later, Will road for the
Pony Express when it was established in 1860, and was a scout and
guide for the Union Army.
When the Civil War started in 1863, Bill Cody enlisted in the
7th Kansas Cavalry as an army scout in Indian campaigns. In 1866,
after the war was over, Bill bought and ran a hotel in Kansas called
the "Golden Rule House Hotel".
After this failed, Bill contracted with the Kansas Pacific
Railroad, in 1867-1868, to furnish buffalo meat to the workers on the
line. This earned him his nickname, Buffalo Bill.
In 1868-1872, Buffalo Bill served again as an army scout when
he was elected to the Nebraska legislature. In 1872, after carrying
dispatches through hostile Indian country for Gen. Philip H. Sheridan,
he became chief of scouts for the 5th U.S. Cavalry for four years until
1876. During this eight year period, Buffalo Bill took place in
sixteen Indian fights, including the defeat of the Cheyenne at Summit
Springs, Colorado (1869), and at Hat Creek, Wyoming in 1876, he was
famed for his "Killing of Yellow Hand". Also during this time, in
1869, Ned Buntline (E. Z. C. Judson) made Buffalo Bill the hero of a
dime novel that was later dramatized, and in 1872 he persuaded Cody to
appear on stage. Cody broke with Buntline after a year, but remained
an actor for eleven seasons. Cody made his first and most authentic
autobiography in 1879. He was also the author of dime novels, as well
as the hero of some 1,700 of these publications, most of them written
by Prentiss Ingraham.
In 1883, Buffalo Bill was so inspired by the success at a July
4th celebration at North Platte, Nebraska, that he organized Buffalo
Bill's Wild West Show. This was an outdoor wild west show that
dramatized the contemporary western scene with staged Indian fights,
round-ups, stage robberies and buffalo hunts. Buffalo Bill also
introduced such stars as Buck Talor, "King of the Cowboys", the first
cowboy hero; Annie Oakley, "Little Sure Shot"; Johnny Baker, "The
Cowboy Kid"; and for one season Sitting Bull. The shows acts included
the Pony Express, the attack on the Deadwood Stagecoach, the "Rough
Riders of the World", the roping, the bucking broncos, and the "Cowboy
Fun", that developed into the rodeo. Cody remained with the show for
almost twenty years. Showing in 1887 for Queen Victoria's Jubilee
made it an International success and many other European tours
followed. Buffalo Bill's show also toured the U.S. scoring its
greatest success at the Chicago World's Fair of 1893.
Buffalo Bill Cody was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor
in 1872 for his bravery in a fight with Indians on the Platte River,
but in 1917 Congress revoked the award because he was not a member of
the military at the time.
In 1901 Buffalo Bill became president of the Cody Military
College and the International Academy of Rough Riders, a riding school
he established on his property in Wyoming
Buffalo Bill was about six feet tall. He had a medium build,
was strong, tough, and had long hair and a beard. He married Louisa
Frederici on March 6, 1866 and had three daughters named Arta (Dec. 16,
1866), Orra (Aug. 1872), and Irma (Feb. 9, 1883). Buffalo Bill had
many friends, such as Annie Oakley, Wild Bill Hickock, and others in
his wild west show. He also considered his buffalo gun, Lucretia, and
his horse, Brigham, his close friends.
There are several causes Buffalo Bill was interested in. One
was preserving buffalo. He did this because he felt guilty for killing
thousands of them. By using buffalo in his show and raising them on
his ranch, Bill helped save them from possible extinction. Buffalo
Bill's Wild West Show also offered Indians employment at a time when
their opportunities were few, and many of them, for the first time
thus learned of a world beyond the limits of their villages.
After 1894 Cody lived on a ranch in the Bighorn Basin in
northwestern Wyoming where he raised buffalo. He also founded the
town of Cody where he built the Irma Hotel, named after his daughter,
which still stands today.
On January 10, 1917, near Denver, Colorado, the wild west
legend, Buffalo Bill Cody, died. His grave is located on Lookout
Mountain, near the town of Golden, Colorado, and can be seen by
Buffalo Bill Cody was very important to the west. Even though
he made the mistake of killing thousands of buffalo, he realized this
and made up for it by repopulating and raising buffalo. Cody was
lucky in some aspects; one was living in the wide open Plains.
William Frederick Cody should be remembered as a wild west legend who
showed what life was like in The Great Plains of America.


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