How To Resolve A Conflict Essay For Free

Essay on Conflict Resolution

Conflict arises when one or more participants view the current system as unacceptable. And at least one party try’s to voice their opinion in order to improve the situation. This can also be viewed as a process we put ourselves in order to achieve ideal conditions. The first thing one should realize is, conflict is a part of life and the best thing anybody can do is to deal with it in a positive manner. Conflict can be derived through various reasons for example, person’s perspective, interest, belief system, or values. Because of globalization the work force is becoming more and more diverse, which in turn means more conflict. This is a not a bad thing it just means that a more effective team leaders and managers are required.

Through conflict we have opportunities to define ourselves better and allow us to do things differently in the future. Through resolution of conflict we can evolve and redefine ourselves, our relationships our community and our society. It is no coincidence that we find ourselves in conflict with those we spend the most time with, e.g. families, friends, associates etc. There are great benefits, just as long as we can constructively resolve conflict with those around us.


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In some teams the choice facing many members does not center upon a choice between the team and the self interested. The members must agree some course of action. This is particularly true when the decisions facing the team are complex. Team members who among alternatives acknowledge that conflict exists, but agree to accept the outcome of the vote. The key issue becomes how to develop and utilize a suitable voting scheme.

There are several kinds of voting rules and different rules are used in different situations. The objective of voting rules can be to find the alternative that the greatest number of team members prefer, the alternative the fewest members object to or the choice that maximizes team welfare. Anything short of unanimity indicates disagreement or conflict within the team. In many cases, conflict will be reduced or eliminated following the conclusion of voting.

Voting does not guarantee conflict resolution. Members may not agree on method of voting. Some members may insist on unanimity, others on simple majority and still others on a weighted majority rule. Even if a voting method is agreed on, it my not yield a decision or may not yield a dingle decision. Finally, because voting does not eliminate conflicts of interests, but rather provides a way fro members to live with conflict, such decisions may not be stable. In this sense voting masks disagreements within teams, potentially threaten long-term group and organizational effectiveness.

The most common voting procedure is majority rule. However, it presents several problems in the attainment of consensus. Despite it democratic appeal, majority rule does not reflect the strength of individual preferences. The vote of a person who strongly supports the issue, counts the same as the individual who is virtually indifferent. Consequently, majority rule does not promote creative tradeoffs among issues. One of the most successful keys to conflict management is the ability to make tradeoffs between issues under discussion. When teams discuss only one issue at a time and vote on outcomes under consideration, this results in less profitable outcomes than when teams discuss issues simultaneously and seek consensus.

Unanimous decision-making is time consuming, it encourages team members to consider creative alternative to expend the size of the pie and satisfy the interest of all members. Unanimous rule can also present a problem. When an individual refuses to compromise he or she can force decisions on the entire group.

Negotiation is necessary when no one can dictate a solution. Team members must agree for any decision to be binding. Conflicts can become very costly and time consuming if not worked out with in a short amount of time.

The strategy of multiple offers can be effective with the most uncooperative of negotiators. This strategy involves presenting the other party with at least two proposals of equal value to you. The other party is asked to indicate which to the proposals they prefer. This should reveal information about how the other side values trade offs between different components of the negotiations. There are psychological benefits as well; when people believe they have more choices, they are more inclined to cooperate.

Many people make the mistake of relying solely on intuition. This mistake leads to faulty assumptions about what other people want. People are not very good at reading others’ emotion in mixed-motive situations. In fact, intuition is almost completely unrelated to how well people actually do in negotiations. For example, the happy/unhappy theory: “If the other party is happy, then I probably did not do so well; if the other party is disappointed, then I probably did pretty well.”

After defining what a conflict is and also determining what type of conflict the situation is, the last step in this process is resolving the situation. Conflict will always arise in life but the main idea that people have to understand is how people handle the situation. People may use the right way of solving a conflict or they might use the wrong approach to solving a conflict. Some of the points that you might not want to do when conflict occurs are timing, personalizing, brown bagging, and not listening.

The first point is timing. People should pick the right time to have an argument. It wouldn’t be good to have an argument late at night, during another’s favorite television show, after several drinks or before someone has to leave for work. If you think about this, it seems good because all of these ideas would just make people argue even more and nothing would get resolved. If there is a problem, and then people should set some time away where there would be no distractions and resolve the conflict.

Personalizing is a main key people do in conflicts because it shifts the issue to the other’s personality. Instead of dealing with the problem at hand, people try to think of ways to get out of talking about the situation or even as far as hurting the other person by talking about the others’ life.

The term brown bagging is a major key in conflict because people try to list as many things wrong as they can think of in as much detail they can. People do not limit themselves to the present because they will bring up things that already happened in the past that they have not gotten over.

One of the last key points is listening. Many people who have conflict, some of the people do not want to listen to what the other person has to say. This is a main issue because if nobody listens to one another, then the conflict will never be resolved. The people will be stuck in their ways and nobody will win in the situation.

When it really comes down to resolving a conflict, the main things you need to know are what you want out of the situation. There is a difference between what you want and what you need to resolve the conflict. Emotions make us do things that might make it harder to resolve the conflict or prolong it. People should concentrate on the pros and cons of the conflict and what they will gain by winning the conflict or losing. There should be a medium ground where people could come to an agreement where both people are happy. Some methods that people use are by forcing the issue. People are successful when they get what they want by using force on them but it mostly at the expense of the other person. Most people who use this quality are usually aggressive.

Another key that people do is withdrawal. Conflict is resolved when one person attempts to satisfy the concerns of the other by neglecting his or her own interests. In doing this, the conflict is resolved for the time being but might arise later on. People who withdraw from conflicts usually tend to be more on the passive side.

The last key to solving conflict is compromise. Compromise is when two or more people have an approach in which partial satisfaction is sought for both parties through a middle ground position that reflects mutual sacrifice. Basically, two people are giving up something that they feel strongly about to reach a decision that the two people will be happy with. This trait is one of the main ideas because when you see that people are trying to reach an end result that people will agree on, it is showing that people are going to make sacrifices for the good of the conflict. Establishing a compromised conflict, one or the other person might not be happy but the people will be able to get past that and make something better out of that situation.

In conclusion, there will always be conflict in life and in the work place. Conflict is a breakdown in the decision making process where an alternative cannot be chosen. The main issue is how we deal with conflict in an appropriate manner. There are many people that sometimes do not always take the right path in resolving a conflict. The main idea in resolving a conflict is to come up with the best plan of action that other people will agree on. Conflict resolution will benefit people because it helps people come to a conclusion that both sides will be comfortable with.

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Essay on Managing Conflict at the Workplace


Abstract

Conflict is inevitable whenever the human element is involved. However, conflict does not always have to produce negative results. It could also provide platforms for increasing team cohesion and overall employee productivity. This is, however, only the case if it is properly managed. This text provides insight on how conflict could be managed in a modern-day organization to produce optimal results.

Conflict Management in the Workplace

Conflict is an inevitable component of organizational life (Ini-Ojo et al, 2014). This is particularly so in the modern-day workplace, which is richly diverse in terms of religion, culture, ethnicity, and gender, and which practically faces more conflict than a more standardized workforce (Prause & Mujtaba, 2015). Researchers have attributed conflict in the workplace to multiple factors, including differences in goals, personality differences, differences in people’s ways of thinking, biases that people have against employees of other groups, and differences in capabilities (Ini-Ojo et al, 2014).

What is clear from the literature, however, is that workplace conflict, if not properly-managed could have damaging effects on employees’ mental, physical, and emotional well-being, eventually harming the organization’s goals and mission (Ini-Ojo et al, 2014; Prause & Mujtaba, 2015). However, if handled properly, conflict could be beneficial to both employees and the organization. Understanding conflict and effective ways of managing it is, therefore, essential for the well-being of employees and the organization (Singleton et al, 2011). This paper examines the different approaches that managers could use to manage and resolve conflicts in their organizations. It begins with a brief description of what conflict and conflict management is, and the My Essay Servicesprimary causes of conflict in the modern-day in the workplace.

What is Conflict?

The term ‘conflict’ has been defined differently by different researchers. In this text, conflict will be defined as the discord that arises when the values, interests, and goals of different groups/individuals are incompatible, causing those groups/individuals to thwart or attempt to block one another’s attempt to achieve the organization’s objectives (Jones & George, 2014). According to Suppiah and Rose (2006), conflict in the workplace is a result of contact between colleagues, departments, work groups, as well as between managers and their subordinates.

It is inevitable whenever components of the human element are involved (Suppiah & Rose, 2006). Conflict arising between individual colleagues is referred to as interpersonal conflict, whereas that arising between within a team, group, or department is referred to as intra-group conflict (Cupach et al, 2010). When conflict spreads outside a group or department, and involves members of different groups, it is referred to as inter-group conflict (Prause & Mujtaba, 2015).

Conflict management is the process of understanding and addressing disputes in an effective, balanced, and rational way (Utleg, 2012). In an organizational context, conflict management usually involves employing good negotiating, problem-solving, and effective communication skills to restore focus to the organization’s overall mission (Utleg, 2012).

Causes of Conflict in the Workplace

Conflict in the organizational setting arises when groups or individuals are trying to pool their effort towards achieving a common goal, but have contrary beliefs/opinions on the best plan of action. According to Utleg (2012), workplace conflicts could be categorized as either functional or dysfunctional.

Functional conflict is healthy, constructive disagreement between individuals or members of a group/team (O’Rourke & Collins, 2008). The conflicting parties differ in terms of opinion or ideas, but discuss their points of disagreement with an element of collaboration (Utleg, 2012). In an organizational setting, this kind of conflict is caused by such factors as:

i) competition for resources;
ii) differences in members’ communication or interpersonal capabilities’
iii) differences in viewpoints about issues relating to people’s age, gender, religion, or upbringing;
iv) comments or actions that cause stress;
v) biases that members have against people of other groups;
vi) personality differences, where people annoy each other because of how they act or think;
vii) members having goals that are inconsistent with each other; and
viii) differences in work approaches, where members have a common goal, but different plans of actions (Ini-Ojo et al, 2014).

Functional conflicts are particularly prominent in the modern-day workplace because of the rich diversity in terms of age, nationality, gender and religion occasioned by globalization. In case of this kind of conflicts, the manager’s responsibility is not to eliminate the conflict, but to manage it over time so that it enhances both the conflicting individuals and the organization (Utleg, 2012).

Dysfunctional conflict is the opposite of functional conflict – it is unhealthy, destructive disagreement between groups or individuals (Utleg, 2012). Dysfunctional conflict is embedded in the notion that organizations achieve their objectives by creating structures that perfectly define job functions, authorities, and responsibilities (Utleg, 2012). Conflict arises when these systems go contrary to employees’ expectations. In the workplace setting, this kind of conflict is triggered by such factors as stifling bureaucracy, disabling and disempowering cultures, unclear job requirements, heavy workloads, warring egos, favoritism, system problems, and dysfunctional work teams (Ini-Ojo et al, 2014).

It is prudent that managers adopt effective approaches for managing both functional and dysfunctional conflicts within their organization. This would help to ensure high levels of job satisfaction and increased productivity. Understanding the specific causes of conflict is fundamental to effective conflict management.

Managing Conflict in the Workplace

Strategies for Managing Conflict at the Workplace

Thomas and Killlman (as cited in Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012) identified five strategies that individuals could use to respond to conflict, and make decisions in an environment marred by conflict:

Competing: this is whereby an individual pursues their own interest at the expense of the other party (Jones & George, 2014). The individual forces, or uses their power and authority to satisfy their own desires, with total disregard for the wishes of the other party (Jones & George, 2014). The primary benefit of managing conflict in this way is that enhanced organizational decisions could be chosen if the enforcer is right (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). The core weakness of this strategy, however, is that ethical dilemmas are likely to result as the ‘forced’ party may be reluctant to act in a way that compromises their interests and principles (Jones & George, 2014). Moreover, anger and aggressions could develop between the conflicting parties, resulting in decreased productivity (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). My personal opinion is that this is a retrogressive way of managing conflict at the workplace because it ignores the fact that conflict exists, and does not eliminate the source of the conflict in the end.

Accommodating: this is whereby an individual neglects their own concerns in favor of the other party’s (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). This conflict-management style works best in cases where one of the conflicting parties is an expert in the given situation, and better-placed than the other party to offer effective solutions (Prause & Mujtaba, 2015). The core advantage of managing conflict in this way is that the relationship between conflicting parties is maintained (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). On the other hand, there is the likelihood that the more effective ideas may be missed (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012).

Avoiding: in this case, an individual neither pursues their own concerns nor those of the other party (Prause & Mujtaba, 2015). This is often the case when one of the parties either pays no attention to the conflict or is not interested in winning (Prause & Mujtaba, 2015). It could also occur when one of the parties is unwilling to create tension, and only wishes for the problem to pass by (Prause & Mujtaba, 2015). This strategy helps to maintain the relationship between the conflicting parties; however, it does not resolve conflict. A study by Montoya-Weiss and his colleagues (2001) found that employing this conflict-management strategy hurts the relationship of a team in the long term. In my view, avoidance only makes the problem worse because it ignores the fact that conflict exists, and hence, it does nothing to reduce its symptoms.

Compromising: this is whereby an individual gives up their concerns after negotiations just so an agreement is reached (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). The individual changes their opinion and accepts the other party’s viewpoint, not because they agree, but because they wish to avoid continued confrontation (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). The main advantage of managing conflict this way is that it maintains relationships and helps to resolve conflicts faster; however, compromising only produces sub-optimum results (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). It resolves conflict temporarily.

Collaborating: this is where the conflicting parties work together to find a solution that is mutually-beneficial (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). The parties collaborate with each other, hearing each other out and expressing their concerns, with the aim of finding an outcome that is satisfactory to both parties (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). Collaboration is the best method of managing conflict because it creates a win-win scenario, which considers the wishes of both parties and allows the parties to analyze all ideas raised in a bid to create absolutely fresh and new outcomes.

Managers could rely on the collaborative style when managing conflicts to help create a positive environment in their workplaces. Moreover, through collaboration, optimum solutions are reached and new outcomes realized that would never have been realized with the other four styles of conflict-management. Collaboration is deemed to create a conflict-free environment in the workplace, and to increase positive outcomes within teams and in the organization as a whole. This then begs the question, ‘how exactly would a manager execute the collaborating style to effectively manage conflict among employees at the workplace?’

Researchers have devised different models for fostering collaboration between conflicting parties at the workplace. One such model is that formulated by Robinson (2010), which identifies eight steps that a manager ought to follow when resolving conflict in the workplace.
Executing the Collaborating Conflict-Management Style in the Workplace

Step 1: Set ground rules for constructive commitment

The first step in the collaboration process is to set the ground rules for how parties will interact and engage with each other at the workplace (Robinson, 2010). The manager needs to ask the conflicting parties to treat each other with respect, and to take time to listen and understand each other’s concerns. According to Robinson (2010), setting ground rules is important because people need rules and guidelines to govern their conduct. Assuming that everyone will just rise to the occasion and act like they are supposed to is naïve (Robinson, 2010).

Step 2: Select a facilitator

Supervision is paramount when a team environment is aggressive or marred by disagreement (Robinson, 2010). In some cases, the conflicting parties may be reasonable enough to deal with the situation themselves; other cases, however, will require the intervention of a facilitator, often another colleague or an executive. According to the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), managers should develop a culture of allowing employees to solve conflicts on their own (Lytle, 2015). The society recommends that executives only step in when the conflicting parties are threatening to quit over the issue, when the conflict is getting personal and parties are beginning to lose respect for each other, and when the conflict is affecting organizational success or employee morale (Lytle, 2015). Some situations may require help from outside the organization. These include:

i) when legal issues are involved such as allegations of harassment or discrimination;
ii) when the manager is not in a position to provide the required conflict-resolution assistance; and
iii) when there is a pattern of recurring issues, perhaps because the issues were not dealt with effectively previously (Lytle, 2015).

Regardless of whether the facilitator comes from within or outside the organization, it is prudent that he/she makes it clear to the parties that it is they (the parties) that are responsible for developing the solution – the facilitator’s only role is to facilitate the negotiation or discussion process (Lytle, 2015).

Step 3: Understand the details of the conflict and its history

The bottom-line here is to ask all participants to describe the conflict, and give their views on what they think the problem is, and how it started. The parties must give all relevant details about the conflict to make it possible for a solution to be found easily. All parties must be heard and given an opportunity to get involved in the resolution process (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). Huan and Yaznadifard (2012) caution that articulate and assertive parties may try to push their agenda as the less articulate parties shy off. This may cause the former to win the argument, leaving the other party offended and dissatisfied. To avoid this, the facilitator could direct the participants to use ‘I’ statements as opposed to ‘you’ statements, and to focus on specific problems and behaviors, rather than on people. Alternatively, the facilitator could allow each party to have its say without interruption, as the other takes notes rather than presenting a conflicting side of the story. They could then categorize the problem and have both sides brainstorm solutions. This strategy is often used by my current immediate supervisor to resolve minor conflicts within the department; and it often produces positive results.

Step 4: Checking for facts and clarifying on perceptions

Participants should be advised to verify the reality of the issue at hand, and not be quick to prove the other party’s arguments wrong. The facilitator should help the participants separate the facts from perceptions, and guide them to make judgment and decisions based on the former. He/she needs to help the participants maintain a calm attitude that allows them to probe the evidence and weigh the facts effectively to ensure that the conflict is resolved.

I personally recall one instance in one of my past jobs where a colleague from an older generation complained to my supervisor about the quality of my work. The colleague had made notes about when I was reporting to work, and my general work ethics. In her view, members of younger generations were lazy, had poor work ethics, and were quick to act without weighing the potential consequences of their actions. I, on the other hand, felt that those from older generations were inflexible in trying out new ventures. The supervisor summoned both of us to the conference room and provided us with checklists showing each other’s contribution to the team. The checklists provided a platform for us to weigh the actual facts about each other’s accomplishments, and use them to change our perceptions. Consequently, we were able to work progressively together for the benefit of the team.

Step 5: Identifying the parties’ individual as well as shared needs

It is prudent for the conflicting parties to understand each other’s real needs such as the need for independence and the need for achievement (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). The manager needs to have a clear view of the suggestions acceptable to both parties. This helps to prevent resistance to resolution (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). Understanding each party’s needs is crucial in helping the manager/facilitator reach a solution that is mutually-acceptable (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). One way to identify needs is to have both parties write down their desired changes and expectations.
Step 6: Come up with multiple solutions to the problem

In this step, the facilitator summarizes the conflict based on what they have heard, and obtains agreement from participants. Possible solutions could then be brainstormed, and participants invited to discuss all options in a positive manner (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). Huan and Yaznadifard (2012) posit that the advantage of developing multiple options to a problem is that if one option fails, you will still have other options as back up. Options that participants agree are unworkable should be ruled out. The final options that participants agree are workable could then be summarized.

Step 7: Develop next steps and ensure that all parties agree

Next steps are the stepping-stones along the path towards resolving conflict. They are the specific strategies that are executed in order for the final solution to be implemented. With each achievable step, participants are able to gauge their progress towards realizing the final solution, and resolving the conflict altogether. The next steps developed in this case should be acceptable to both parties. As Robinson (2010) points out, these steps help to build trust and to enhance relationships for working together.

Step 8: make mutually-beneficial agreements

Once acceptable options have been summarized and achievable next steps developed, the parties need to plan and come into an agreement. An agreement is mutually-beneficial if it recognizes and emphasizes the participants’ shared needs (Huan & Yaznadifard, 2012). Mutual affirmation is deemed to increase participants’ confidence levels, making them better-placed and more committed to handling challenges that may arise on the way (Robinson, 2010). Robinson (2010) cautions that it may not be possible to satisfy all of the participants’ needs during this phase; the bottom-line is to develop a decision-making rule that emphasizes the common goals and hence, generates the level of commitment needed from participants.

Robinson (2010) agrees that managers who follow these steps in resolving conflict within their organization are deemed to raise the performance and overall job satisfaction of their teams. Developing an environment where conflicts are resolved effectively makes employees more confident and more productive, given that they are able to spend more emotional energy on their work, and less energy on activities that are not helpful such as backstabbing and avoidance. Positive emotional energy spreads throughout the organization when conflicts are handled effectively, and consequently, overall productivity improves.

Managing Diversity-Related Conflict

The model suggested above can be used to resolve general conflicts at the workplace. The modern-day workplace, however, in addition to the conventional interpersonal conflicts, faces a new breed of conflict resulting from differences in personality, generation, culture, nationality, and ethnicity. Globalization and economic liberalization have made it easier for people to move across borders, and as a result, the workplace has become richly diverse. It is crucial that managers understand how to manage diversity-related conflict in their organizations so they are able to preserve working relationships as well as profitability and productivity in their organizations.

Woods (2010) expresses that diversity-related conflict can be managed through diversity training, which would make it possible for conflicting parties to be appreciative of the other party’s perspective, and hence, willing to collaborate. According to the author, “collaboration is not possible unless both parties arrive at an openness to try as best as they can to understand…the other’s perspective” (p.5).

Employees ought to be trained on how to interact with, and engage with people of different cultures, generations and ethnicity. This will go a long way towards not only preventing conflict among employees, but also helping them collaborate to resolve it amicably before it escalates to unprecedented levels. When employees understand the expectations of their colleagues from different backgrounds, it becomes relatively easy for them to understand their individual needs, goals and expectations. This potentially helps them to engage better in a collaborative framework to develop mutually-satisfying solutions whenever conflicts arise.

Managers and supervisors too ought to receive leadership training on how to effectively resolve diversity-related conflicts among their staff. Such training will equip them with skills on how to foster effective collaboration between conflicting parties, and how to devise solutions that are mutually-beneficial to all parties involved.

In summary, the 21st century society has made huge advances in the area of conflict management. Numerous studies have been conducted to increase the society’s knowledge in regard to conflict management and legal codes for promoting healthy workplaces. Nonetheless, the society continues to face challenges in managing conflict situations in diverse work environments. Conflict is a complex phenomenon that most of the time cannot be avoided whenever the human element is involved. However, conflict is not always detrimental; it could yield significant benefits to an organization if handled effectively. It is prudent that managers equip themselves with the skill on how to manage conflict in their workplaces. This will go a long way towards increasing productivity and overall job satisfaction. Maintaining an open mind, conflict management training, and diversity education are all beneficial strategies that the modern-day organization could use to ensure that conflict is effectively-managed.

References

Cupach, W. R., Canary, D. J. & Spitzberg, B. H. (2010). Competence in Interpersonal Conflict (2nd ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland.
Huan, L. J. & Yaznadifard, R. (2012). The Difference of Conflict Management Styles and Conflict-Resolution in the Workplace. Business and Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1), 141-155.
Ini-Ojo, B. E., Iyiola, O. O. & Osibanjo, A. O. (2014). Managing Workplace Conflicts in Business Environment: The Role of Alternative Dispute Resolution. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(36), 74-82.
Jones, G. R. & George, J. M. (2014). Contemporary Management (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Lytle, T. (2015). How to Resolve Workplace Conflicts. Society of Human Resource Management.
Montoya-Weiss, M. M., Massey, A. P. & Song, M. (2001). Getting it Together: Temporal Coordination and Conflict Management in Global Virtual Teams. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1), 251-1262.
O’Rourke, J. & Collins, S. (2008). Module 3: Managing Conflict and Workplace Relationships (2nd ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Prause, D. & Mujtaba, B. G. (2015). Conflict Management Practices for Diverse Workplaces. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 6(3), 13-22.
Robinson, C. (2010). When Conflict Happens: Navigating Difficult Interactions in Senior Teams – Fostering a Culture of Constructive Engagement. Business Strategy Series, 11(4), 214-218.
Singleton, R., Toombs, L. A., Taneja, S., Larkin, C. & Pryor, M. G. (2011). Workplace Conflict: A Strategic Leadership Imperative. International Journal of Business & Public Administration, 8(1), 149-163.
Suppiah, W. & Rose, R. (2006). A Competence-Based View to Conflict Management. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 3(7), 1905-1909.
Utleg, F. B. (2012). Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict: An Organizational Life. Asian Educational Research Association, 3(1), 32-40.
Woods, S. (2012). Thinking about Diversity-Related Conflict: Respect, Recognition and Learning. Henderson Woods LLC Working Paper.

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